Wrocław Tourist Lines: The changing nature of its offer and the tourist product life cycle

Authors

  • Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk University of Wrocław, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Geography and Regional Development https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3262-311X

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18778/0867-5856.32.1.01

Keywords:

tourist lines, tourist product, technology heritage, historic means of urban transport, trams, buses

Abstract

Tourist lines serviced by historic vehicles function in several cities. One of them is Wrocław (Poland) in which the current offer based on trams was extended with buses in 2021. In the article, an assessment of Wrocław Tourist Lines has been carried out regarding the tourist product and its development, while additionally determining its stage in the product life cycle. To this end, among other elements, data on the number of passengers and ticket sales have been used. After 13 years of existence, the offer has developed traits of a mature product, displaying fairly stable journey figures. However, it did not use the significant potential of the heritage public transport fleet in Wrocław to the full. That is why, in recent years, several changes have been introduced to the structure, marketing and pricing of the tourist product, which have improved journey frequencies and, even more importantly, increased the passenger rate per service. Therefore, it can be claimed that as a result of the actions undertaken, the product has entered a rejuvenation stage, but this process is still fairly unmarked. The main disadvantage of the product is its marketing and the way the offer is communicated to potential passengers.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Baraniecki, L. (2001). Politics and tourism: Sentimental tourism’ development in East-Central Europe. Geographica Slovenica, 34 (1), 105–113.
Google Scholar

Benson, G. (1992). Seattle vintage trolley operations. Transportation Research Record, 1361, 330–336.
Google Scholar

Benur, A.M., Bramwell, B. (2015). Tourism product development and product diversification in destinations. Tourism Management, 50, 213–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.02.005
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.02.005

Bonti, M. (2014). The corporate museums and their social functions: Some evidence from Italy. European Scientific Journal, 10 (10), 141–150.
Google Scholar

Bryniarska, Z., Kuza, A. (2021). Analiza wpływu COVID-19 na funkcjonowanie transportu pasażerskiego. Transport Miejski i Regionalny, 10, 3–18.
Google Scholar

Bufe, S. (ed.) (1992). Strassenbahnen in Schlesien. Egglham: Bufe-Fachbuch-Verlag.
Google Scholar

Burton, C., Louviere, J., Young, L. (2009). Retaining the visitor, enhancing the experience: Identifying attributes of choice in repeat museum visitation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 14 (1), 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.351
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.351

Butler, R.W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, 24 (1), 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1980.tb00970.x
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1980.tb00970.x

Butler, R. (2004). The tourism area life cycle in the twenty-first century. In: A.A. Lew, C.M. Hall, A.M. Williams (eds), A companion to tourism (pp. 159–170). Malden–Oxford–Carlton: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470752272.ch13
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470752272.ch13

Cannas, R. (2012). An overview of tourism seasonality: Key concepts and policies. Almatourism – Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, 3 (5), 40–58. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2036-5195/3120
Google Scholar

Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social Research, 1 (39), 164–189.
Google Scholar

Coles, T. (2004). Tourism and retail transactions: Lessons from the Porsche experience. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10 (4), 378–389. https://doi.org/10.1177/135676670401000408
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/135676670401000408

Coles, T. (2008). International car manufactures, brandscapes and tourism: Engineering the experience economy. In: T. Coles, C.M. Hall (eds), International business and tourism: Global issues, contemporary interactions (pp. 238–255). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203931035
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203931035

Corluka, G. (2019). Tourism seasonality – an overview. Journal of Business Paradigms, 4 (1), 21–43.
Google Scholar

Cuccia, T., Rizzo, I. (2011). Tourism seasonality in cultural destinations: Empirical evidence from Sicily. Tourism Management, 32 (3), 589–595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.05.008
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.05.008

Cudny, W. (2018). Car tourism. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62084-8
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62084-8

Cudny, W., Horňák, M. (2016). The tourist function in a car factory Audi Forum Ingolstadt example. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, 33, 23–38. https://doi.org/10.1515/bog-2016-0022
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bog-2016-0022

Cudny, W., Jolliffe, J. (2019). Car tourism – conceptualization and research advancement. Geografický časopis / Geographical Journal, 71 (4), 319–340.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/geogrcas.2019.71.4.17

Custódio Santos, M., Ferreira, A., Costa, C., Santos, J. (2020). A model for the development of innovative tourism products: From service to transformation. Sustainability, 12 (11), 4362. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114362
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114362

Demony, C. (2021). Lisbon man breathes new life into city’s historic trams. Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/lisbon-man-breathes-new-life-into-citys-historic-trams-2021-06-25/ (31.10.2021).
Google Scholar

Duda-Seifert, M. (2016). The characteristics of cultural tourists who visit urban Jewish heritage centres: The case study of visitors to the White Stork Synagogue in Wrocław. Turyzm/Tourism, 26 (2), 57–64. https://doi.org/10.1515/tour-2016-0014
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tour-2016-0014

Farnsworth, S.R., Schumann, J.W. (1992). Vintage trolleys in Portland. Transportation Research Record, 1361, 355–359.
Google Scholar

Gierczak-Korzeniowska, B., Szpara, K., Stopa, M. (2021). Regional tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic: Losses, missed opportunities and new developments for the tourism industry. Turyzm/Tourism, 31 (2), 65–86. https://doi.org/10.18778/0867-5856.31.2.04
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/0867-5856.31.2.04

Gisterek, I. (2009). Zabytkowe tramwaje w San Francisco. Transport Miejski i Regionalny, 5, 7–21.
Google Scholar

Harris, R., Masberg, B. (1997). Factors critical to the success of implementing vintage trolley operations. Journal of Travel Research, 35 (3), 41–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759703500306
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759703500306

Haywood, K.M. (1986). Can the tourist-area life cycle be made operational? Tourism Management, 7 (3), 154–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(86)90002-6
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(86)90002-6

Hinch, T.D., Hickey, G.P. (1996). Tourism attractions and seasonality: Spatial relationships in Alberta. In: K. Mackay, K.R. Boyd (eds), Tourism for all seasons: Using research to meet the challenge of seasonality (pp. 69–76). Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.
Google Scholar

Ilkosz, J. (1995). Koncepcje urbanistyczne Maksa Berga na przykładzie projektów przebudowy Berlina w roku 1910 i Wrocławia w latach 1919–1920. In: J. Rozpędowski (ed.), Architektura Wrocławia. T. 2: Urbanistyka (pp. 360–398). Wrocław: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej.
Google Scholar

Ilkosz, J. (2005). Hala Stulecia i Tereny Wystawowe we Wrocławiu – dzieło Maksa Berga. Wrocław: Muzeum Architektury.
Google Scholar

Jasieńko, J., Moczko, M., Moczko, A., Wala, D. (2011). Concrete of the Centennial Hall (UNESCO List), Wrocław, Poland. Wiadomości Konserwatorskie / Conservation News, 30, 168–176.
Google Scholar

Kaczmarek, J., Stasiak, A., Włodarczyk, B. (2002). Produkt turystyczny albo jak organizować poznawanie świata: podręcznik. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.
Google Scholar

Kaczmarek, J., Stasiak, A., Włodarczyk, B. (2010). Produkt turystyczny: pomysł, organizacja, zarządzanie. Warszawa: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.
Google Scholar

Kołodziejczyk, K. (2014a). Rozwój oferty turystycznych linii kolejowych północnej Walii. In: S. Tanaś, J. Mokras-Grabowska (eds), Warsztaty z Geografii Turyzmu. T. 4: Od autentyczności do komercji – o doświadczaniu w turystyce (pp. 139–158). Łódź: Instytut Geografii Miast i Turyzmu, Wydział Nauk Geograficznych Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/7969-138-8.10

Kołodziejczyk, K. (2014b). Oferta turystycznych linii autobusowych przewożących rowery w Republice Czeskiej. Transport Miejski i Regionalny, 11, 27–34.
Google Scholar

Kołodziejczyk, K. (2016). Przekształcenia zabytkowych zajezdni komunikacji miejskiej we Wrocławiu w obiekty kulturalno-turystyczne. Turystyka Kulturowa, 6, 51–78.
Google Scholar

Kołodziejczyk, K. (2018). Potencjał polskich miast pod względem zabytkowych tramwajów i ich wykorzystanie w turystyce. Ekonomiczne Problemy Turystyki, 2 (42), 209–224.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.18276/ept.2018.2.42-20

Kołodziejczyk, K. (2019). Heritage Tram Lines in Wroclaw: Analysis of the tourist offer from an urban tourism perspective. Turyzm/Tourism, 29 (1), 23–33. https://doi.org/10.2478/tour-2019-0003
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/tour-2019-0003

Kołodziejczyk, K. (2020). Between elitism and egalitarianism: The Heritage Tram Line in Wrocław as an example of a search for an acceptable tourist product. Turyzm/Tourism, 30 (1), 105–121. https://doi.org/10.18778/0867-5856.30.1.22
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/0867-5856.30.1.22

Kołodziejczyk, K., Michnicka, K. (2021). Popularność turystyki motoryzacyjnej przez perspektywę frekwencji w muzeach motoryzacji w Polsce i Republice Czeskiej. Turystyka Kulturowa, 2 (119), 7–49.
Google Scholar

Kopta, T. (2021). Transport zbiorowy w dobie pandemii. Przegląd Komunalny, 11, 67–69.
Google Scholar

Kopta, T., Majchrzak, P. (2020). Koronawirus a zachowania komunikacyjne. Przegląd Komunalny, 8, 51–53.
Google Scholar

Kruczek, Z., Litwicka, P. (2010). Ocena atrakcyjności turystycznej Muzeum Inżynierii Miejskiej w Krakowie. In: E. Puchnarewicz, D. Orłowski (eds), Turystyka kulturowa a regiony turystyczne w Polsce (pp. 11–25). Warszawa: Wyższa Szkoła Turystyki i Języków Obcych.
Google Scholar

Medlik, S. (1995). Leksykon podróży, turystyki, hotelarstwa. Warszawa: PWN.
Google Scholar

Michnicka, K., Kołodziejczyk, K. (2021). Percepcja turystyki motoryzacyjnej i motywacje osób odwiedzających muzea motoryzacyjne i uczestników wydarzeń motoryzacyjnych. Prace Geograficzne, 165, 69–89. https://doi.org/10.4467/20833113PG.21.010.14587
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4467/20833113PG.21.010.14587

Moving to Portugal (2021). A guide to the trams of Lisbon. Retrieved from: https://www.movingtoportugal.pt/en/destination-portugal/a-guide-to-the-trams-of-lisbon/ (31.10.2021).
Google Scholar

Niewiadomski, P. (2020). COVID-19: From temporary de-globalisation to a re-discovery of tourism? Tourism Geographies, 22 (3), 651–656. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1757749
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1757749

Nowacki, M., Kruczek, Z. (2021). Experience marketing at Polish museums and visitor attractions: The co-creation of visitor experiences, emotions and satisfaction. Museum Management and Curatorship, 36 (1), 62–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/09647775.2020.1730228
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09647775.2020.1730228

Parzych, K., Gotowski, R., Karczewska, W. (2020). Tourist arrivals from Germany to Poland in the years 2000–2018. Pedagogy and Psychology of Sport, 6 (1), 93–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/PPS.2020.06.01.008
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.12775/PPS.2020.06.01.008

Pearce, D.G. (2001). Tourism and urban land use change: Assessing the impact of Christchurch’s tourist tramway. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3 (2), 132–148. https://doi.org/10.1177/146735840100300205
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/146735840100300205

Pearce, D.G. (2010). Tourism, trams and local government policy-making in Christchurch, New Zealand. Current Issues in Tourism, 4 (2–4), 331–354. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500108667892
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500108667892

Phraner, S.D. (1992). Vintage trolleys: A national overview. Transportation Research Record, 1361, 323–329.
Google Scholar

Piątkowska, K. (2014). The corporate museum: A new type of museum created as a component of company marketing. The International Journal of the Inclusive Museum, 6 (2), 29–37. https://doi.org/10.18848/1835-2014/cgp/v06i02/44436
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.18848/1835-2014/CGP/v06i02/44436

Pokojska, W. (2014). Mercedes-Benz Museum Stuttgart – muzeum idealne? Zarządzanie w Kulturze, 15 (2), 117–130.
Google Scholar

Połom, M. (2020). Creating a tourist product using historic trolleybuses in Gdynia. Geography and Tourism, 8 (2), 73–84. Retrieved from: https://www.geography.and.tourism.ukw.edu.pl/artykuly/vol8.no2_2020/G-T-2020-02_7_20200817 (31.10.2021).
Google Scholar

Portugal Trails (2021). Portugal top 10: 1. Explore ancient Lisbon and hitch a ride on a traditional tram. Retrieved from: https://www.portugaltrails.com/experience/explore-ancient-lisbon-hitch-ride-traditional-tram/ (31.10.2021).
Google Scholar

Poulsson, S.H.G., Kale, S.H. (2004). The experience economy and commercial experiences. The Marketing Review, 4 (3), 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1362/1469347042223445
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1362/1469347042223445

Sielicki, T. (2012). Przez wrocławskich ulic sto… Historia tramwajów we Wrocławiu. Wrocław: Muzeum Miejskie Wrocławia.
Google Scholar

Sielicki, T. (2017a). Przez Sępolno, Zalesie i Krzyki… Historia tramwajów we Wrocławiu. Wrocław: Muzeum Miejskie Wrocławia.
Google Scholar

Sielicki, T. (2017b). Wrocławskie tramwaje konne. Łódź: Księży Młyn Dom Wydawniczy.
Google Scholar

Smith, S. (1994). The tourism product. Annals of Tourism Research, 21 (3), 582–595. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(94)90121-X
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(94)90121-X

Stanciu, L. (2021). Find Your Greatness transnational meeting in Wroclaw, Poland. Retrieved from: https://urbact.eu/find-your-greatness-transnational-meeting-wroclaw-poland (15.10.2021).
Google Scholar

Stasiak, A. (2006). Produkt turystyczny – szlak. Turystyka i Hote­larstwo, 10, 9–40.
Google Scholar

Stasiak, A. (2013). Tourist product in experience economy. Turyzm/Tourism, 23 (1), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.2478/tour-2013-0003
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/tour-2013-0003

Stemmler, P.V. (2020). Where tourists and locals meet: The empowerment of local culture through the integration of the tourist (cultural organizations in Anjos, Lisbon). Master thesis, Lisbon: ISCTE – Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Escola de Sociologia e Políticas Públicas, Departamento de História.
Google Scholar

Swarbrooke, J., Page, S. (2001). The development and management of visitor attractions. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780080494500
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-5169-1.50014-5

Sztuk, A. (2021). Zmiany w wyborach destynacji turystycznych w okresie pandemii COVID-19: szansa dla małych miast. In: W. Nowak, K. Szalonka (eds), Zdrowie i style życia: Ekonomiczne, społeczne i zdrowotne skutki pandemii (pp. 155–174). Wrocław: Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.
Google Scholar

Visit Portugal (2022). Lisbon by tram. Retrieved from: https://www.visitportugal.com/en/content/lisbon-by-tram (2.03.2022).
Google Scholar

Volti, R. (1995). The Petersen Automotive Museum. Technology and Culture, 36 (3), 646–650. https://doi.org/10.2307/3107247
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3107247

Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., Liu, F. (2021). COVID-19: Potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review, 76 (1), 74–87. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-03-2020-0110
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-03-2020-0110

Xie, P.F. (2006). Developing industrial heritage tourism: A case study of the proposed jeep museum in Toledo, Ohio. Tourism Management, 27 (6), 1321–1330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.06.010
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.06.010

Zieliński, R. (2020). Przez koronawirusa do Wrocławia przyjeżdża o połowę mniej turystów. „Braliśmy pod uwagę gorsze scenariusze”. Gazeta Wyborcza, 21.08.2021. Retrieved from: https://wroclaw.wyborcza.pl/wroclaw/7,35771,26225853,przez-koronawirusa-do-wroclawia-przyjezdza-mniej-turystow-nawet.html (7.03.2022).
Google Scholar

Downloads

Published

2022-05-31

How to Cite

Kołodziejczyk, K. (2022). Wrocław Tourist Lines: The changing nature of its offer and the tourist product life cycle. Turyzm/Tourism, 32(1), 7–37. https://doi.org/10.18778/0867-5856.32.1.01

Issue

Section

Articles