Hegel, revolution, and the rule of law

Autor

  • Sabrina P. Ramet Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Department of Sociology and Political Science https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2843-3898

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18778/1427-9657.09.02

Słowa kluczowe:

G.W.F. Hegel, philosophy, revolution, rule of law

Abstrakt

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was one of the philosophic giants of the nineteenth century. Well versed in both ancient and more recent philosophical tracts, he rejected the individualism of Hobbes and Locke, as well as their notion that the state was an agency set up in the first place to protect life and property, and, drawing inspiration from Aristotle, outlined a vision of the state as an agency bound, in the first place, to protect the weak and the powerless. Hegel further rejected Kant’s individualistic ethics and counseled that ethical behavior had to be understood as taking place in a social context, with real duties toward other people. For Hegel, an individual had rights and duties within the context of the family, in the community, and, as a citizen, vis-à-vis the state. He emphasized the network of duties in which each individual finds himself, urging political moderation and concern for the good of the entire community. He has been condemned as a proto-totalitarian, lauded as a democrat of sorts, and described variously as liberal, anti-liberal, authoritarian, conservative-monarchist, and constitutionalist. This essay will argue that Hegel came to champion a constitutional-legal order (Rechtsstaat) under an autocratic monarch, with protection for liberal values. The absolute authority of the monarch, thus, was limited to those powers which he needed in order to advance and protect the interests of the citizens of the realm.

Bibliografia

Albrecht, R. 1978. Hegel und die Demokratie. Bonn: Bouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann.
Google Scholar

Alcoff, L. 2010. Continental Epistemology. In: J. Dancy, E. Sosa, M. Steup (eds.). A Companion to Epistemology, 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 287–292.
Google Scholar

Avineri, S. 1968. Hegel Revisited. Journal of Contemporary History 3(2), pp. 133–147.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002200946800300208

Avineri, S. 1972. Hegel’s Theory of the Modern State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139171441

Beiser, F.C. (ed.). 1993. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521382742

Brooks, T. 2007. No Rubber Stamp: Hegel’s Constitutional Monarch. History of Political Thought 28(1), pp. 91–119.
Google Scholar

Buck-Morss, S. 2000. Hegel and Haiti. Critical Inquiry 26(4), pp. 821–865.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/448993

Buck-Morss, S. 2009. Hegel, Haiti, and Universal History. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt7zwbgz

Cristi, F.R. 1983. The Hegelsche Mitte and Hegel’s Monarch. Political Theory 11(4), pp. 601–622.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591783011004007

Cristi, F.R. 1989. Hegel’s Conservative Liberalism. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique 22(4), pp. 717–738.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900020229

Cristi, F.R. 2005. Hegel on freedom and authority. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Google Scholar

Dancy, J., Sosa, E., Steup, M. (eds.). 2010. A Companion to Epistemology, 2nd ed., Vol. 4. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444315080

Durán De Seade, E. 1979. State and History in Hegel’s Concept of People. Journal of the History of Ideas 40(3), pp. 369–384.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2709243

Ferrarin, A. 2004. Hegel and Aristotle.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Ferrarin, A. 2007. Hegel and Aristotle.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Garza, Jr.A. 1990–1991. Hegel’s Critique of Liberalism and Natural Law: Reconstructing ethical life. Law and Philosophy 9(4), pp. 371–398.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00212704

Goldstein, L.J. 1962. The Meaning of ‘State’ in Hegel’s Philosophy of History. The Philosophical Quarterly 12(46), pp. 60–72.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2216840

Hegel, G.W.F. 1953. Reason in History. Trans. R.S. Hartman. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co.
Google Scholar

Hegel, G.W.F. 1967a. Philosophy of Right. Trans. T.M. Knox. London & Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Google Scholar

Hegel, G.W.F. 1967b. The Phenomenology of Mind. Trans. J.B. Baillie. New York: Harper & Row.
Google Scholar

Hegel, G.W.F. 1969. Hegel’s Science of Logic. Trans. A.V. Miller. London: Allen & Unwin. Reissued by Humanity Books of New York.
Google Scholar

Hegel, G.W.F. 1971. The German Constitution. In: Hegel’s Political Writings. 1964. Trans. T.M. Knox. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 6–258.
Google Scholar

Henrich, D. 1983. Vernunft in Verwirklung. In: G.W.F. Hegel. Philosophie des Rechts. Die Vorlesungen von 1819/20 in einer Nachschrift. D. Henrich (ed.). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Google Scholar

Inyang, J. 2005. Hegel’s Idea of the Absolute and African Philosophy. In: Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), African Philosophy and General Issues in Philosophy, http://www.frasouzu.com/Issues%20and%20Papers/Inyang%20John%20on%20HEGELS%20IDEA%20OF%20THE%20ABSOLUTE%20AND%20AFRICAN%20PHILOSOPHY.pdf (accessed 15.08.2011).
Google Scholar

Jaeschke, W. 1981. Christianity and Secularity in Hegel’s Concept of the State. Journal of Religion 61(2), pp. 127–145.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/486847

Kaufmann, W.A. 1954. Hegel’s Early Antitheological Phase. The Philosophical Review 63(1), pp. 3–18.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2182112

Kelly, G.A. 1972. Hegel’s America. Philosophy & Public Affairs 2(1), pp. 3–36.
Google Scholar

Kroner, R. 1921, 1924. Von Kant bis Hegel. 2 Vols. Tübingen: Mohr.
Google Scholar

Kroner, R. 1941. God, Nation, and Individual in the Philosophy of Hegel. Philosophy and Phenomenlogical Research 2(2), pp. 188–198.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2102929

Lichtheim, G. 1967. Introduction to the Torchbook Edition. In: G.W.F. Hegel. The Phenomenology of Mind. Trans. J.B. Baillie. New York: Harper & Row.
Google Scholar

Mertens, T. 1995. Hegel’s Homage to Kant’s Perpetual Peace: An Analysis of Hegel’s “Philosophy of Right”. The Review of Politics 57(4), pp. 321–340.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0034670500018672

Neuhouser, F. 2000. Foundations of Hegel’s Social Theory: Actualizing Freedom. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Google Scholar

Nohl, H. (ed.). 1907. Hegels theologische Jugendschriften, nach den Handschriften der Kgl. Bibliothek in Berlin. Tübingen and Frankfurt am Main: Minerva.
Google Scholar

Patten, A. 1999. Hegel’s idea of freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Google Scholar

Pelczynski, Z.A. (ed.). 1971. Hegel’s Political Philosophy – problems and perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Philosophie des Rechts: Die Vorselung von 1819/290 in einer Nachschrift. 1983. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Google Scholar

Pinkard, T. 1986. Freedom and Social Categories in Hegel’s Ethics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 47(2), pp. 209–232.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2107437

Pippin, R.B. 2008. Hegel’s practical philosophy: Rational agency as ethical life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511808005

Pippin, R.B. 2011. Hegel on Self-Consciousness: Desire and death in The Phenomenology of Spirit. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400836949

Ramet, P. 1983. Kantian and Hegelian Perspectives on Duty. Southern Journal of Philosophy 21(2), pp. 281–299.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-6962.1983.tb01508.x

Ritter, J. 1965. Hegel und die französische Revolution. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Google Scholar

Senigaglia, C. 2007. Verfassungseinheit und Gewaltenausgleich: Hegels Auseinandersetzung. Parliaments, Estates and Representation 27(1), pp. 37–56.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02606755.2007.9522252

Shklar, J.N. 1976. Freedom and Independence: A Study of the Political Ideas of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Smith, S.B. 1986. Hegel’s Critique of Liberalism. American Political Science Review 80(1), pp. 121–139.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1957087

Smith, S.B. 1989a. Hegel’s Critique of Liberalism: Rights in Context. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Google Scholar

Smith, S.B. 1989b. What is ‘Right’ in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right? American Political Science Review 83(1), pp. 3–18.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1956431

Stillman, P.G. 1974. Hegel’s Critique of Liberal Theories of Rights. American Political Science Review 68(3), pp. 1086–1092.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1959149

Stillman, P.G. 1980. Hegel’s Civil Society: A Locus of Freedom. Polity 12(4), pp. 622–646.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3234303

Suter, J.F. 1971. Burke, Hegel, and the French Revolution. In: Z.A. Pelczynski (ed.). Hegel’s Political Philosophy – problems and perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 52–72.
Google Scholar

Taylor, C. 1975. Hegel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Taylor, C. 1979. Hegel and Modern Society. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316286630

Taylor, C. 2008. Hegel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Taylor, C. 2015. Hegel and Modern Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Tunick, M. 1998. Hegel on Justified Disobedience. Political Theory 26(4), pp. 514–535.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591798026004004

Westphal, K. 1993. The basic context and structure of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. In: F.C. Beiser (ed.). Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 234–269.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521382742.009

Wiedmann, F. 2003. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag.
Google Scholar

Wokler, R. 1998. Contextualizing Hegel’s Phenomenology of the French Revolution and the Terror. Political Theory 26(1), pp. 33–55.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591798026001003

Wood, A.W. 1990. Hegel’s ethical thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Wood, A.W. 1993. Hegel’s ethics. In: F.C. Beiser (ed.). Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 211–233.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521382742.008

Opublikowane

2020-12-30

Jak cytować

Ramet, S. P. . (2020). Hegel, revolution, and the rule of law. Eastern Review, 9, 9–31. https://doi.org/10.18778/1427-9657.09.02

Numer

Dział

Articles

Inne teksty tego samego autora