An Assessment of Changes in Excess Mortality of Males Aged 65 and More in the Period 1999–2013 in the Lodz Region


  • Beata Ciabiada Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Medical University of Lodz
  • Paulina Paciej
  • Marek Bryła Department of Social Medicine, Medical University of Lodz
  • Irena Maniecka-Bryła



excess male mortality, population aged 65 , time trends, Lodz region


The paper aims to analyse the trends in mortality of men and women aged 65 and more in the Lodz region in the period 1999–2013, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of excess male mortality. A complete database of deaths registered in the Lodz region in the period 1999–2013 (471.397) constituted our empirical material. Crude death rates among males and females were calculated. Standardization was carried out using the direct method. The European population was adopted as a standard. In addition, specific mortality rates according to the causes of death based on ICD–10 and the excess mortality rates were calculated. An analysis of time trends was performed with the use of joinpoint models. Average annual percentage rates of changes were estimated. Our calculations enabled to identify the most important causes of death for people aged 65 and more in 2013. Among males the rates (per 10.000) were as follows: cardiovascular diseases (301.2), malignant neoplasms (160.2), diseases of the respiratory system (56.0), diseases of the digestive system (24.4) and external causes (19.4). A similar distribution of causes was observed among women, where the rates were as follows, respectively: 270.1; 82.9; 32.0; 19.6; 11.2. Compared to 1999, the largest decline in mortality rate, among both males and females, was observed for cardiovascular diseases. Excess mortality rate of males aged 65 and more reached the highest values (2.2–2.6) throughout the considered period in the age group 65–69 years, while the lowest (1.1–1.3) were observed in the interval of 85 years and more. The greatest rate of change (2.5% per year) was recorded in years 1999–2007 in the age group of 70–74 years. Despite the observed decline in mortality rates, excess mortality of men aged 65 and more did not change significantly over the period of 1999 to 2013, and principally was due to: malignant neoplasms, diseases of the respiratory system and external causes.



Download data is not yet available.


Bryła M., Burzyńska M., Maniecka‑Bryła I . (2013), Self‑rated quality of life of city‑dwelling elderly people benefitting from social help: results of a cross‑sectional study, „Health and Quality of Life Outcomes”, vol. 11, no. 181, s. 1–11, doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-11-181.
Google Scholar

Burzyńska M., Bryła M., Bryła P., Maniecka‑Bryła I . (2016), Factors determining the use of social support services among elderly people living in a city environment in Poland, „Health and Social Care in the Community”, vol. 24, no. 6, s. 758–768, doi: 10.1111/hsc.12259.
Google Scholar

Crimmins E., Beltrán‑Sánchez H. (2010), Mortality and morbidity trends: is there compression of morbidity?, „Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences”, vol. 66B, no. 1, s. 75–86.
Google Scholar

GUS (2014a), Rocznik demograficzny 2014, Warszawa, [dostęp: 25.04.2016].
Google Scholar

GUS (2014b), Sytuacja demograficzna osób starszych i konsekwencje starzenia się ludności Polski w świetle prognozy na lata 2014–2050, Warszawa, [dostęp: 15.04.2016].
Google Scholar

GUS (2014c), Trwanie życia w 2013 r., Warszawa,‑tematyczne/ludnosc/trwanie‑zycia/trwanie‑zycia‑w–2013‑r‑,2,8.html [dostęp: 26.01.2016].
Google Scholar

GUS (2015), Podstawowe informacje o rozwoju demograficznym Polski do 2014 roku, Warszawa, [dostęp: 27.01.2016].
Google Scholar

Holzer J. (2003), Demografia, PWE, Warszawa.
Google Scholar

Kibele E., Jasilionis D., Shkolnikov V . (2013), Widening socioeconomic differences in mortality among men aged 65 years and older in Germany, „Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health”, vol. 67, s. 453–457.
Google Scholar

Kim H., Fay M., Feuer E., Midthune D. (2000), Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates, „Statistics in Medicine 2000”, vol. 19, no. 3, s. 335–351.
Google Scholar

Krumholz H., Nuti S., Downing N., Normand S., Wang Y. (2015), Mortality, Hospitalizations, and Expenditures for the Medicare Population Aged 65 Years or Older, 1999–2013, „Journal of the American Medical Association”, vol. 314, no. 4, s. 355–365, doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.8035.
Google Scholar

Majdzińska A. (2015), Zróżnicowanie zaawansowania starości demograficznej na obszarze województwa łódzkiego, „Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica”, t. 4, nr 315, s. 109–126.
Google Scholar

Maniecka‑Bryła I . (2006), Zmiany w stanie zdrowia mieszkańców Łodzi w okresie transformacji społeczno‑ekonomicznej (na przykładzie ludności w wieku 65–74 lata), rozprawa habilitacyjna, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi, Łódź.
Google Scholar

Maniecka‑Bryła I., Bryła M., Bryła P., Pikala M. (2015), The burden of premature mortality in Poland analysed with the use of standard expected years of life lost, „BMC Public Health”, vol. 15, no. 101, s. 1–8, doi: 10.1186/s12889–015–1487‑x.
Google Scholar

Szukalski P. (2013), Jak Polacy umierają?, „Demografia i Gerontologia Społeczna – Biuletyn Informacyjny”, nr 1, s. 1–4.
Google Scholar

Wojtyniak B., Goryński P., Moskalewicz B. (2012), Sytuacja zdrowotna ludności Polski i jej uwarunkowania, NIZP‑PZH, Warszawa.
Google Scholar

Worach‑Kardas H. (2005), Sytuacja demograficzna i jej związek ze stanem zdrowia ludności, [w:] I. Maniecka‑Bryła, J. Martini‑Fiwek (red.), Epidemiologia z elementami biostatystyki, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi, Łódź.
Google Scholar



How to Cite

Ciabiada, B., Paciej, P., Bryła, M., & Maniecka-Bryła, I. (2018). An Assessment of Changes in Excess Mortality of Males Aged 65 and More in the Period 1999–2013 in the Lodz Region. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica, 5(331), 39–50.




Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.