Publication ethics

FOE has prepared procedures for dealing with unethical behavior of authors or reviewers in case of suspicion of: (1) plagiarism, (2) redundant publication, (3) ghost, quest, gift authorship, (4) fabricated data, (5) request to change the author's list, (6) conflict of interest.

1) Plagiarism

Plagiarism is copying and passing off another's work or ideas without crediting the source. It manifests in unattributed use of large portions of a text presented as if they were by the plagiarist. 

Anti-plagiarism procedure

Each submission is deposited in the Crossref Similarity Check database powered by iThenticate system for plagiarism checking. In the case of plagiarism suspicion in the submitted manuscript, the editor checks the degree and kind of coping: plagiarism or redundancy (in case of redundancy: see redundancy policy). If the size of plagiarism is minor, the editor informs the author (corresponding author) about this abuse asking for direct quotations with references (or rephrase copied phrases). If the size of plagiarism is major, editor informs the author and ask for an explanation. If the explanation is satisfactory, it is possible: (1) reject submission or (2) request corrected revision. If there is no explanation or it is unsatisfactory the editor: (1) rejects submission, and/or (2) informs the author whose contents have been plagiarized, and/or (3) informs the author's superior or institution. 

2) Redundancy

Redundant or duplicate publication is a submission of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published (text similarity). Our journal applies the statement on the originality of the work.

A distinct form of redundant publication is "salami publication" which is characterized by similarity of hypothesis, methodology or results but not text similarity (these aspects of publications are hard to detect by software applications but also present a threat to publication ethics).

Submitting an article that reproduces content from another language (translation) is also a redundancy practice unless: (1) it contains reference the original, and/or (2) the author has received approval from the editors of both journals.

Anti-redundancy procedure

In case of redundancy suspicion in the submitted manuscript the editor contact author with enclosing signed authorship statement (that submission has not been previously published) and documentary evidence of duplication with ask for an explanation. If the explanation is satisfactory and scale of duplication is minor, it is possible: (1) reject submission, (2) request corrected revision. If there is no explanation or it is unsatisfactory the editor/reviewer: (1) rejects submission, and/or (2) informs anyone who may have been exposed to a conflict of interest, (3) informs the author's superior or institution. 

3) Ghostwriting (ghost, guest or gift authorship)

A ghost author is omitted from an authorship despite qualifying for authorship. A guest or gift author is listed as an author despite not qualifying for authorship. 

Anti-ghostwriting procedure

In case of ghost, guest or gift authorship in the submitted manuscript the editor/reviewer contact the corresponding author with enclosing signed authorship statement (that submission enclose only qualifying authors). If the response from the author is satisfactory, it is possible: (1) reject submission, (2) request for correction in authorship. If there is no explanation or it is unsatisfactory the editor/reviewer: (1) rejects submission, and/or (2) informs anyone who may have been exposed to a conflict of interest, (3) informs the author's superior or institution. 

4) Fabricated data

The case of data fabrication is not common in economic sciences. However, if there is suspicion of fabricated data, we initiate the below procedure

Anti-fabricated data procedure

In case of suspicion of fabricated data in the submitted manuscript, the editor sends a request for clarification to the author. If the response from the author is satisfactory submission is normally followed up. If there is no explanation or it is unsatisfactory the editor/reviewer: (1) rejects submission, and/or (2) informs anyone who may have been exposed to a conflict of interest, and/or (3) informs the author's superior or institution. 

5) Request for a change in the list of authors

This is the case when main (corresponding author) requests: removal or add an author of the article. This must always be explained in writing.

Procedure in case of a request for a change in the list of authors

In case of a request for a change in the list of authors in the submitted manuscript, the editor contacts all authors. If there is a consent from all the authors, the editor makes changes in the list of authors. If there is the conflict of interest  the editorial board does not make changes until it receives written permission from all authors.

6) Undisclosed conflict of interest

Conflict of interest exists when an author has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence his or her actions ("dual commitments", "competing interests", or "competing loyalties").

Anti-undisclosed conflict of interest procedure

In case of conflict of interest editor contacts author and express concern. If the response from the author is satisfactory submission is normally followed up. If there is no explanation or it is unsatisfactory the editor/reviewer: (1) rejects submission, and/or (2) informs anyone who may have been exposed to a conflict of interest, and/or (3) informs the author's superior or institution.