Galen, Body and Soul in Vita Cyrilli XI, 13–20

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18778/2084-140X.11.04

Keywords:

Vita Constantini-Cyrilli, Galen, Christ as physician, original sin, bodily resurrection

Abstract

The paper points to a hitherto not recognized quotation from Galen in the Old Church Slavonic Life of S. Cyril of the 9th century (chapter XI, 15) which demonstrates the Galenic maxim “contraria contrariis curentur”. The Galenic argument is brought forth by the Christian philosopher Cyril in a discussion with Jewish theologians. The paper firstly demonstrates that the author of VC does not only enrich Cyril’s speech with allusions to Biblical formulations but makes also the Jewish interlocutors use a direct quotation from Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians. The Christian and Jewish arguments complement each other leading to the ultimate Christian answer that Christ is the real physician to heal body and soul. In contextualizing the findings and pointing to another passage of Vita Cyrilli the paper shows, that the metaphor of “Christ, the physician” both times occurs in a context, where the Original sin is the main topic. Finally, the paper is concerned with the rhetoric of the metaphor and the limits of what can be possibly expressed by it. The ultimate healing in a Christian sense is expressed in the faith into bodily resurrection and thus transcends the comparison with concrete physical therapy. In contrast to concrete bodily health the qualities of a “body of the resurrection” cannot be positively named and thus are designated by the metaphor of “enjoying the fruit” in the heavens.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ambrosius, De Obitu Valentiniani Consolatio, [in:] Patrologiae cursus completus, Series latina, vol. XVI, ed. J.-P. Migne, Paris 1845, col. 1357–1384.
Google Scholar

Balalykin D.A., Shok N.P., The Apodictic Method in the Tradition of Ancient Greek Rational Medicine: Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, “History of Medicine. The Russian Journal” 3, 2016, p. 377–391, https://doi.org/10.17720/2409-5834.v3.4.2016.37z
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.17720/2409-5834.v3.4.2016.37z

Bauer W., Griechisch-deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der frühchristlichen Literatur, ed. K. Aland, B. Aland, 6Berlin–Boston 1988, https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110860269
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110860269

Bentein K., Verbal Periphrasis in Ancient Greek. A State of the Art, “Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire” 90, 2012, p. 5–56, https://doi.org/10.3406/rbph.2012.8388
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/rbph.2012.8388

Blass F., Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch, Göttingen 1896.
Google Scholar

Bouras-Vallianatos P., Reading Galen in Byzantium. The Fate of Therapeutics to Glaucon, [in:] Greek Medical Literature and its Readers. From Hippocrates to Islam and Byzantium, ed. P. Bouras-Vallianatos, S. Xenophontos, London–New York 2018 [= Publications of the Centre for Hellenic Studies. King’s College London, 20], p. 180–229, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351205276-10
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351205276-10

Brain P., Galen on the Ideal of the Physician, “South Africa Medical Journal” 52, 1977, p. 936–938.
Google Scholar

Bulachovskij L.A., Istoričeskie komentarii k russkomu literaturnomu jazyku, 5Kiev 1958.
Google Scholar

Bynum C.W., Bodily Miracles and the Resurrection of the Body in the High Middle Ages, [in:] Belief in History. Innovative Approaches to European and American Religion, ed. T. Kselman, Notre Dame 1991, p. 68–106.
Google Scholar

C. Galenus, Opera Omnia, ed. K.G. Kühn, vol. XII, Leipzig 1826; vol. XX, Leipzig 1833 [repr. Oxford 2011].
Google Scholar

Cejtlin R.M., Večerka R., Bláhová E., Staroslavjanskij slovar’ (po rukopisjam X–XI vekov), Moskva 1994.
Google Scholar

Constantinus et Methodius Thessalonicenses. Fontes, ed. F. Grivec, F. Tomšič, Zagreb 1960 [= Radovi staroslavenskog instituta, 4].
Google Scholar

Dafni A., On the Typology and the Worship Status of Sacred Trees with a Special Reference to the Middle East, “Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine” 2, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-26
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-26

Dafni A., The Supernatural Characters and Powers of Sacred Trees in the Holy Land, “Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine” 3, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-10
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-10

Daiber T., Ešče raz o “ruskich bukvach” v Žitii Konstantina-Kirilla, [in:] Sub specie aeternitatis. Sbornik naučnych statej k 60-letiju V.B. Krysko, ed. M.A. Puzina, Moskva 2021, p. 311–320.
Google Scholar

Daiber T., Gräzismen in der Vita des hl. Kyrill, [in:] Deutsche Beiträge zum 16. Internationalen Slavistenkongress, Belgrad 2018, ed. S. Kempgen, M. Wingender, L. Udolph, Wiesbaden 2018
Google Scholar

[= Die Welt der Slaven, 63], p. 111–116, https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv11sn3zx.12
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv11sn3zx.12

Daiber T., Variant Reading and Reconstruction. Grecisms in the Life of Constantine-Cyril, [in:] Gumanitarnoe obrazovanie i nauka v techničeskom vuze. Sbornik dokladov Vserossijskoj naučno-praktičeskoj konferencii s meždunarodnym učastiem, ed. V.A. Baranov, Iževsk 2017, p. 377–382.
Google Scholar

Daiber T., The Vita Constantini-Cyrilli XII:1–6 and its Greek Original, [in:] Studien zum frühen Slavischen und zu älteren slavischen Texten, ed. J. Fuchsbauer, E. Klotz, Berlin 2021 [= Schriften über Sprachen und Texte, 14], p. 115–129.
Google Scholar

Daiber T., Vita Cyrilli III: 1–8. Wer ist die Sophia?, “Zeitschrift für Slavische Philologie” 77, 2021, p. 33–56.
Google Scholar

Daiber T., Vita Cyrilli X: 75–81: Jewish and Christian Polemics on Abraham, Esau, and Jacob (Vita Constantini-Cyrilli X: 75–81), [in:] Translations of Patristic Literature in South-Eastern Europe, ed. L. Taseva, R. Marti, Brăila 2020, p. 43–58.
Google Scholar

Daiber T., „Wenn einer den Abendmahlskelch zerbricht…” – VC XV:10–11 und das irische Thema der Slavenmission, “Cyrillomethodianum” (in print).
Google Scholar

Dörnemann M., Einer ist Arzt, Christus. Medizinales Verständnis von Erlösung in der Theologie der griechischen Kirchenväter des zweiten bis vierten Jahrhunderts, “Zeitschrift für antikes Christentum” 17, 2013, p. 102–124, https://doi.org/10.1515/zac-2013-0006
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zac-2013-0006

Douglass J.R., “This Flesh Will Rise Again”: Retrieving Early Christian Faith in Bodily Resurrection, Pittsburg 2007 (PhD Theses).
Google Scholar

Galen, Works on Human Nature, vol. I, Mixtures (De Temperamentis), ed. et trans. P.N. Singer, P.J. van der Eijk, Cambridge 2018.
Google Scholar

Galen on Food and Diet, ed. M. Grant, London–New York 2000.
Google Scholar

Gildersleeve B.L., On the Stylistic Effect of the Greek Participle, “American Journal of Philology” 9, 1888, p. 137–157, https://doi.org/10.2307/287568
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/287568

Gregorius Magnus, Homilia XXXII. Habita ad populum in basilica sanctorum Processi et Martiniani, die natalis eorum, [in:] Patrologiae cursus completus, Series latina, vol. LXXVI, ed. J.-P. Migne, Paris 1887, col. 1232–1238.
Google Scholar

Gregory of Nyssa, ed. P. Schaff, H. Wace, Oxford–London–New York 1893 [= Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of Christian Church. Second Series, 5].
Google Scholar

Grimm-Stadelmann I., Untersuchungen zur Iatromagie in der byzantinischen Zeit. Zur Tradierung gräkoägyptischer und spätantiker iatromagischer Motive, Berlin–Boston 2020 [= Byzantinisches Archiv. Series Medica, 1], https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110619041
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110619041

Harnack A., Mission und Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten, vol. I, Die Mission in Wort und Tat, 2Leipzig 1906.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/003463730500200107

Hayes M.E., An Analysis of the Attributive Participle and the Relative Clause in the Greek New Testament, Frankfurt am Main 2018 [= Studies in Biblical Greek, 18], https://doi.org/10.3726/978-1-4539-1912-5
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3726/978-1-4539-1912-5

Hippolytus, Cyprian, Caius, Novatian, Appendix, ed. A. Roberts, J. Donaldson, American Reprint of the Edinburgh Edition, ed. A. Cleveland Coxe, Buffalo 1886 [= The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 5].
Google Scholar

Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haeresium, ed. M. Marcovich, Berlin–New York 1986 [= Patristische Texte und Studien, 25], https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110858235
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110858235

Joannes Chrysostomus, In Matthaeum, [in:] Patrologiae cursus completus, Series graeca, vol. LVII–LVIII, ed. J.-P. Migne, Paris 1862, col. 13–794.
Google Scholar

Joannes Chrysostomus, Tomus primus omnium Operum, locis pene innumeris ad collationem exemplarium utriusque linguae…, Paris: S. Nivellius, 1581.
Google Scholar

John Chrysostom, The Homilies on the Gospel of Matthew, pars 3, Hom. LIX–XC, Oxford 1851 [= A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church. Anterior to the Division of the East and West, 34].
Google Scholar

Moulin D. de, A Historical-Phenomenological Study of Bodily Pain in Western Man, “Bulletin of the History of Medicine” 48, 1974, p. 540–570.
Google Scholar

Oberhelman S.M., The Diagnostic Dream in Ancient Medical Theory and Practice, “Bulletin of the History of Medicine” 61, 1987, p. 47–60.
Google Scholar

Preiser G., Allgemeine Krankheitsbezeichnungen im Corpus Hippocraticum. Gebrauch und Bedeutung von Nousos und Nosema, Berlin–New York 1976, https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110829747
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110829747

Saayman F., Conjunctions in Classical Greek Syntax, “Acta Classica” 33, 1990, p. 91–102.
Google Scholar

Scarborough J., The Galenic Question, “Sudhoffs Archiv. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftsgeschichte” 65, 1981, p. 1–31.
Google Scholar

Schmidt J.M., Samuel Hahnemann und das Ähnlichkeitsprinzip, “Medizin, Gesellschaft und Geschichte” 29, 2010, p. 151–184.
Google Scholar

St. Ambrose, ed. P. Schaff, H. Wace, Oxford–London–New York 1894 [= Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of Christian Church. Second Series, 10].
Google Scholar

The Vita of Constantine and The Vita of Methodius, trans. et ed. M. Kantor, R.S. White, Michigan 1976 [= Michigan Slavic Materials, 1].
Google Scholar

Young D.C., Mens Sana in Corpore Sano? Body and Mind in Ancient Greece, “The International Journal of the History of Sport” 22, 2005, p. 22–41, https://doi.org/10.1080/0952336052000314638
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0952336052000314638

Downloads

Published

2021-12-30

How to Cite

Daiber, T. (2021). Galen, Body and Soul in Vita Cyrilli XI, 13–20. Studia Ceranea. Journal of the Waldemar Ceran Research Centre for the History and Culture of the Mediterranean Area and South-East Europe, 11, 75–90. https://doi.org/10.18778/2084-140X.11.04

Issue

Section

Articles