Studia Ceranea. Journal of the Waldemar Ceran Research Centre for the History and Culture of the Mediterranean Area and South-East Europe <p style="text-align: justify;">The task that the Editorial Council of <em>Studia Ceranea</em> has set before itself is the gradual creation of a scientific journal, interdisciplinary in character, which will offer specialist articles, reviews and notes on newly published monographs. Along these lines, we will attempt to cross the limits of the narrow specializations restricted to Byzantine or Slavic studies; the papers contributed would represent various aspects of the Late Ancient, Byzantine and Slavic culture of the eastern Mediterranean Area <em>largissimo</em> <em>sensu</em> and South-East Europe, which – we claim – forms an integrity, for all its diversity. Consequently, the journal, based on previous models of other respectable journals devoted to similar subject matters,&nbsp; utilizes the methodology and achievements of disciplines used in the study of Late Antiquity, Middle Ages and early Modern Era and is ready to face the new challenges posed by contemporary humanist thought.</p> en-US (Jolanta Dybała) (Firma Magis) Wed, 23 Dec 2020 13:29:06 +0100 OJS 60 Constantine’s City: the Early Days of a Christian Capital <p>In his new city Constantinople, Constantine the Great established an imperial cult with pagan elements prevailing over Christian ones. This can be seen from a number of monuments and buildings, such as the Forum of Constantine with the emperor’s statue on a column, the Capitol, the emperor’s mausoleum, the Mesomphalon, and the temple of the city goddess Tyche.</p> Albrecht Berger Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger – the First One Not to Become a Blind Man? Political and Military History of the Bryennios Family in the 11th and Early 12th Century <p>Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger has a place in the history of Byzantium as the author of one of the works devoted to the Komnenos family coming to power. This outstanding observer and talented leader, who was fascinated by the person of his father-in-law Alexius I Komnenos, came from a family whose ambitions were no less than the those in the one into which Nikephoros himself married. His father and grandfather, also his namesake, were those who dreamed of an imperial crown for themselves and tried to reach for it armed. Apart from defeat, they both faced punishment which was blinding. One of those who captured and ordered the father of Nikephoros the Younger to be blinded was his future father-in-law. Like the later marriage with Anna Komnene, this had an impact on the respect he had for the new dynasty. However, the question is whether this respect should be explained by the man’s reluctance to participate in a plot against his brother-in-law that his ambitious wife and her mother planned.</p> Marcin Böhm Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Utopian Elements in Porphyry’s De abstinentia <p>In the long passage of <em>De abstinentia</em>, IV, 2–18, Porphyry mentions a series of “groups” (ἔθνη) as examples of abstinence from animal food: the ancient Greeks of the “golden age”, the Lacedaemonians of Lycurgus’ era, the Egyptian priests, the Essenes among the Jews, the Magi among the Persians and the gymnosophists among the Indians. Such an association does not seem at all accidental, since Porphyry refers to a tradition in which these communities have similar habits of life, including the prohibition of eating meat and drinking wine, sexual abstinence, absence of diseases and wars, separation from the civil sphere, devotion to the sacred. All these elements constitute the specific connotation of a human existence that evokes the “time of the origins”, substantially a paradisiac dimension, far from history. It is a deliberate symbolic shift. This brief research will investigate the reasons and the deep meaning of the connection based on utopian life traits.</p> Chiara Di Serio Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Translation and Transformation of John Chrysostom’s Urban Imagery into Old Church Slavonic <p>John Chrysostom was not only one of the most prolific and influential authors of late antiquity but also a renown preacher, exegete, and public figure. His homilies and sermons combined the classical rhetorical craft with some vivid imagery from everyday life. He used descriptions, comparisons, and metaphors that were both a rhetorical device and a reference to the real world familiar to his audience. From 9th century onwards, many of Chrysostom’s works were translated into Old Church Slavonic and were widely used for either private or communal reading. Even if they had lost the spontaneity of the oral performance, they still preserved the references to the 4th-century City, to the streets and the homes in a distant world, transferred into the 10th-century Bulgaria and beyond. The article examines how some of these urban images were translated and sometimes adapted to the medieval Slavonic audience, how the realia and the figures of speech were rendered into the Slavonic language and culture. It is a survey on the reception of the oral sermon put into writing, and at the same time, it is a glimpse into the late antique everyday life in the Eastern Mediterranean.</p> Aneta Dimitrova Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Some Remarks on the Significance of Gold Based on Byzantine Ekphraseis of Works of Art <p>The abundance of gilding is considered to be a particularly characteristic feature of Byzantine art. This attribute can be confirmed by even a cursory analysis of works of art. In short, Byzantine artists used gold on a large scale, showing great technical skill. It is therefore quite surprising that this issue has not yet received a separate, comprehensive study. Admittedly, researchers recognize the presence of gold but unfortunately, they almost do not go beyond general observations. On the one hand, they emphasize the primary role of the symbolic meanings of gold, and, on the other, they indicate the high material value of this precious metal. These comments are usually very general and their authors rarely refer to specific primary sources. Their observations, however, speak more about present-day ideas about Byzantine culture than about it itself. The indicated problem is an important and extensive task to be done, hence this paper is only an outline of the most important questions, each of which requires a separate and in-depth study. Therefore, this synthetic article introduces the most basic points associated with the understanding of gold in Byzantium. For this purpose, selected examples of Byzantine texts in which their authors referred to gold in a strictly artistic context are analysed. Thus, the main thesis is as follows: in Byzantine painting, gold, one of the most important devices of artistic expression, was used on a large scale primarily for aesthetic reasons.</p> Magdalena Garnczarska Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Monastic Diet in the Light of Medical Science. Theodoret of Cyrus and Medics on Dates and Figs <p>The aim of this article is to present the menu of early Christian monks in the context of the findings of Greek and Roman medicine in the field of dietetics. It draws from the passages of <em>Historia religiosa</em> by Theodoret of Cyrus about the consumption of dates and figs by Syrian ascetics.</p> <p>Both species of fruit did not comprise the basis of the monks’ limited diet. Figs and dates were treated as additional food by them, which they ate rarely and in small quantities. According to Theodoret, they did so especially when their bodies were weakened, during long and exhausting fasts.</p> <p>According to modern dietetics, this was justified as both figs and dates are calorie- and nutrientrich foods, which consumed even in small amounts can significantly supplement an adult’s daily balance in this regard.</p> <p>The authors of ancient and medical texts stemming from the tradition of Antiquity (Galen, Oribasius, Antimus, Aëtius of Amida, Paul of Aegina and others) also drew attention to the nutritious quality of dates and figs, in addition to numerous others health-promoting properties (especially in the context of the latter species). However, they further noted that excessive consumption of both fruits could lead to some health problems.</p> <p>In the context of these findings, occasional consumption of dates and figs by Syrian ascetics appears justified, as they could provide their weakened bodies with food of high energy value and nutritious content, whose small amount – and, therefore, fitting in the ideal of mortification – would suffice to improve their health condition.</p> Maciej Kokoszko, Krzysztof Jagusiak, Jolanta Dybała Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Power and Aristocracy – Transformation and Composition of the Komnenos “Clan” (1081–1200) – A Statistical Approach <p>The fall of imperial authority and the decline of the Byzantine state at the end of the 12th century has its cause not only in foreign policy but also, to a large extent, in the family policy of the Komnenoi emperors. The “clan” system introduced during Alexios I’ reign and continued by his successors, connected the aristocratic elites with the imperial family by blood ties. In the 12th century, the composition of this group, linked by a complicated marriage network, underwent a significant transformation, which could be one of the most important factors of the later crisis. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First: distinguishing two groups of aristocrats within the Komnenos “clan” i.e. “core” Komnenos family and affine families. Second: determining their approximate numer during the 12th century.</p> <p>Relatively large amount of data about aristocratic elites of that period allows for statistical approach. Written sources and sigillography of the 12th century Byzantium is rich in information about high ranking persons. In addition, the Komnenos era has been thoroughly described in prosopographical works. This allows for counting the number of aristocrats and thus obtaining reliable results. Such an approach is not free from estimation and probability. However, the amount of information is sufficient enough to show the overall trends visible in the composition of the elites associated with the Komnenoi.</p> <p>The result of this study is a table that shows the tendency of the weakening of the Komnenos family in face of a constantly growing group of affine aristocratic families. This sheds a new light on the progressive collapse of the imperial authority after the death of Manuel I Komnenos, the key role of destructive actions of Andronikos I, and the weakness of the Angelos dynasty.</p> Paweł Lachowicz Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Scribal Habits in the Slavonic Manuscripts with Athanasius’ Second Oration against the Arians <p>This article introduces the readers to the scribal habits/practices in ten Slavonic manuscripts that contain Athanasius’ <em>Second Oration against the Arians</em>. These scribal habits are classified and analyzed according to eleven categories: (1) omissions, (2) additions, (3) substitutions, (4) transpositions, (5) non-sense readings, (6) marginal corrections, (7) marginal notes, (8) deletions, (9) erasures, (10) interlinear corrections, and (11) corrections within the text. The analysis of each manuscript is accompanied with the statistical tables that summarize the collected data according to these eleven categories, and there is a longer summary table in the Appendix. Of the ten manuscripts, two are analyzed in more detail as a way of illustrating how the <em>Orations </em>were copied and read in medieval times, and how theological concerns and local contexts affected the scribe’s interaction with the text.</p> Viacheslav V. Lytvynenko Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Crypto-Christianity and Religious Hybridisation in the Ottoman Balkans: a Case Study (1599–1622) <p>In this paper I intend to address the issue of crypto-Catholicism in the early Ottoman Balkans, a complex phenomenon which has drawn historians’ attention over the decades. More specifically, I will attempt to define and clarify the difficult and unresolved issue, taking into account the characteristics of the Balkans where many religious and social groups co-existed. That produced interaction and enmeshment between the various religions and, as a result, identities developed specific distinctive traits and often overlapped.</p> <p>Within that unique Balkan environment – a real confessional melting pot – crypto-Christianity naturally arose. Crypto-Catholics or Orthodoxies, living under Ottoman rule, publicly decided to embrace the Islamic religion but secretly identified themselves as Christians. I have set out to investigate this phenomenon by considering letters and reports produced by Catholic missions involved in the Balkan peninsula.</p> Silvia Notarfonso Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Genealogy as a Method to Legitimise Rulership in Some Balkan and Scandinavian Sources <p>This paper will focus on several sources from Scandinavia and the Balkans, and compare the types of genealogies portrayed in them – descent from gods, descent from another kind of supernatural being, descent from a legendary hero. The paper will examine the types of genealogies and the purpose they serve; how and why they were commissioned? Is there a difference in the establishment of the image of the ruler if the latter has descended from gods, legendary heroes, or a specific clan or dynasty? Does Christianity change the tradition of writing genealogies and the stories they retell? Are personal qualities enough to provide legitimate claims?</p> Vesela Stankova Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Labarum – from Crux Dissimulata and Chi-Rho to the Open Image Cross <p>Based on the testimony of emperor Constantine the Great himself, Eusebius of Caesarea presented a labarum in the form of <em>crux dissimulata </em>crowned with the Chi-Rho. The continuers of his <em>Church History </em>in the next century, Rufinus of Aquileia, Philostorgius, Socrates of Constantinople, and Sozomen, only kept the cross-shape of the banner, excluding the christogram. This might have happened because in two main sources informing about the vision of Constantine – the accounts of Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius – it was not only the monogram of Christ that played a significant role. The motif of the cross also appears in them, in the account of Eusebius directly, and Lactantius indirectly. Furthermore, Christians interpreted the cross explicitly as a sign of victory. Eusebius wrote about the cross as a symbol of immortality, a triumphant sign of Christ overcoming death. In the account of the bishop of Caesarea, on the other hand, Constantine’s supposed vision included a triumphal sign in the form of a luminous cross, or the symbol of the trophy of salvation. Numismatic evidence also cannot be ignored. Already during the reign of Constantine the Great, the Chi-Rho appeared on the coins both on the shields and on the labarum. However, starting from the reign of Constantius II, coins that were minted included the cross instead of the Chi-Rho on the labarum. It also began to be placed on the shields, in their central part, where the monogram of Christ used to be. Over time, the cross replaced the entire labarum. The iconography present on the coins may prove that the phenomenon of identifying the labarum or Chi-Rho with the cross was not limited to church historiography and was more widespread, although it should be remembered that coins continued to also be decorated with the letters Chi-Rho. Therefore, the representation of the cross did not replace this symbol. However, it cannot be ruled out that the increasingly common image of the cross on coins also contributed to the aforementioned perception of the labarum by church historians.</p> Sławomir Bralewski Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Historical Master Narratives and the Master Narrative of the Bulgarian Middle Ages <p>The article is a brief and schematic presentation of the notion of a “master narrative” and of the master narrative of the Bulgarian Middle Ages, which is the subject a detailed book of mine in Bulgarian. This master narrative was constructed starting with what is known as “Romantic” historiography (from Monk Paisij’s “Istorija Slavjanobolgarskaja” [Slavonic-Bulgarian History] in 1762 to Vasil Aprilov’s writings in the first half of the nineteenth century) but it was elaborated especially with the development of “scientific” (or critical) historiography first by Marin Drinov (1838–1906) and mainly by the most significant Bulgarian historians from the “bourgeois” era: Vasil Zlatarski (1866–1935), Petăr Mutafčiev (1883–1943), and Petăr Nikov (1884–1938). Then it was interrupted by the (crude) Marxist counter-narrative of the late 1940s through the 1960s. Starting in the late 1960s there was a gradual return to the nationalism of the master national narrative, which reached a peak with the celebration of the 1,300th anniversary of the founding of the Bulgarian state in 1981. The same line continued after 1989 (stripped of the Marxist <em>vulgata</em>), yet some new tendencies appeared.</p> Roumen Daskalov Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Responsibilities of the Church Steward in the Light of The Canons of Pseudo-Athanasius <p>The office of a steward was known in Egypt back in the time of the Pharaohs. It appears that in the East, this function first emerged in the structures of the Egyptian Church. The <em>Canons</em> <em>of Pseudo</em>-<em>Athanasius</em>, which probably come from the first half of the 5th century, show the author’s views on how the church stewards fulfilled their duties. Pseudo-Athanasius not only outlined the criteria to be met by these administrators, but also indicated the date by which, in his opinion, they should be solemnly appointed. In addition, this source informs us how these church administrators were supposed to fulfill their obligation to collect and secure church property for the Church’s charitable activities. The author emphasized that the steward played a key role in how efficiently actions in support of the poor were implemented, however, he also observed that these tasks were fully dependent on the will of the local bishop. Pseudo-Athanasius also devoted considerable attention to the important problem of the dishonesty of some administrators. Therefore, he postulated that the vaults and granaries should be secured with seals by a commission and that they be opened in the same way. The author had an interesting idea to create a reserve in the treasury, which, in the event of a cataclysm or other calamity, would provide food for the community. Undoubtedly, the <em>Canons of Pseudo</em>-<em>Athanasius </em>are an extremely valuable source that deepens our knowledge about the work of church stewards at that time. There are numerous indications that the author included his own observations in them. However, it should be remembered that the description of the steward’s duties presented here is a model proposition, therefore, in order to obtain a more complete picture, it should be confronted with other sources from the era.</p> Andrzej Hołasek Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Spoils of War “Divided into Three Parts”: A Comparison between Two Accounts in Skylitzes’ Synopsis historiarum and Kritoboulos’ History of Mehmed the Conqueror <p>One can say without hesitation that during the highly dynamic medieval epoch rivalries and military clashes were of paramount importance in the struggles for dominance over the Balkan Peninsula. During the entire period, war-time activities included the capturing of those who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the enemy. Various groups of soldiers and civilians alike have repeatedly tested the bitterness of captivity. Attempts to trace the fate of war-captives are, for understandable reasons, directly dependent on the data in the written records. The comparison of the various historical accounts is rather typical, even if the records deal with events that are different in time, place and participants. The present paper also compares two descriptions. This study encompasses two well-known historical accounts: the first one is from the chronicle (<em>Synopsis historiarum</em>) of John Skylitzes, while the second one is excerpted from Kritoboulos’ <em>History of Mehmed the Conqueror</em>. Despite all distinctions, there are some particular similarities. Both fragments concern the division of the spoils of war and the fate of the captured population and provide additional knowledge of the practices relating to prisoners of war in the Balkan medieval past.</p> Yanko Hristov, Valentin Kitanov Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Pope Honorius (625–638) – a Pacifist or a Doctrinal Arbiter? <p>The purpose of this article is to analyze the standpoint of Pope Honorius (625–638) at the early stage of the controversy over operation in Christ. Patriarch Sophronius (633/634–638) expressed his protest against the statement on one operation in Christ after it had been officially expressed in the Alexandrian <em>Pact </em>of unity in 633. The <em>Pact </em>was supported by both Sergius of Constantinople (610–638) and Emperor Heraclius (610–641). Patriarch Sergius developed his tactics in order to defend the stance of both the Church of Constantinople and the Emperor. As a result, a significant tension between both Patriarchs arose. After the confrontation between Sophronius of Jerusalem and Sergius of Constantinople, Pope Honorius (625–638) was concerned with the matter of operation in Christ. He maintained the standpoint of Sergius and became one of the implicit initiators of the <em>Ekthesis </em>issued by Emperor Heraclius.</p> Oleksandr Kashchuk Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Barbarians on the Coins of Trajan Decius (249–251) <p>During Trajan Decius’s reign (249–251) in a number of provincial mints – Alexandria, Caesarea Maritima, Magnesia ad Sipylum and Nicomedia – coins were issued featuring the theme of the barbarian (an enemy or a captive) in reverse iconography. In this article, I discuss these coins, considering them in the context of the iconographic tradition and the activity of the particular mints during Decius’s reign, and also in relation to the ideology of victory and the dynastic ideology. They are interesting especially because the theme of the barbarian was not utilised in the parallel imperial coinage. Nevertheless, its presence in provincial coinage is also of a marginal nature. Moreover, the end of Decius’s reign also coincided with a time-related hiatus in the use of the theme in provincial coinage.</p> Agata Kluczek Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Halina Evert-Kappesowa, (Co-)Founder of Post-War Polish Byzantine Studies <p>This article aims to expand information on the life and academic career of a historian from Łódź, the co-founder of Polish post-war Byzantine studies – Halina Evert-Kappesowa. Based on student files preserved at the University of Warsaw, as well as employee and promotion records in the Archives of the University of Łódź, the author has established facts such as the date and place of Kappesowa’s birthday, subsequent stages of education and reasons for her delayed promotions. She has also addressed Evert-Kappesowa’s achievements and their reception. This paper provides vital additions to the debate on the contribution of female historians to the development of Polish history.</p> <p>The text consists of two parts; the first is devoted to the biography of the heroine and her research interests. The second concerns the course of her scientific career.</p> Jolanta Kolbuszewska Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 John the Scythian – a Slayer of Usurpers and the Isaurians <p>The paper is devoted to John the Scythian – one of the chiefs of the Byzantine army in the eighties and nineties of the 5th century. Based on the sources, the military career of John the Scythian lasted 16 years. He spent less time defending the borders of the empire and more fighting (often, victoriously) against usurpers and peoples who either had lived in its territory for centuries (the Isaurians) or sought a place to settle there (the Ostrogoths), and whose status kept changing from ally to enemy. John, as evidenced by his nickname, came from a barbarian people, but this did not prevent him from serving the emperor loyally and building his position in the circles of the empire’s elite.</p> Mirosław J. Leszka Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Textile Prices in Early Byzantine Hagiographic Texts. Three Case Studies <p>This text analyzes three early Byzantine source accounts on clothing prices from the beginning of the 5th to the early 7th centuries in Italy (Rome), Palestine (probably in Jerusalem), and Egypt (Alexandria). The compiled and discussed narrations were compared with other contemporary source reports, which feature analogical figures describing the amount of prices, wages, taxes, and other values or distances. By making a comparative analysis, the author came to the conclusion that these data are recurrent, and, therefore, unreliable. This observation also applies to the clothing prices discussed in the text, which, undoubtedly, should be considered topical.</p> Ireneusz Milewski Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 John the Water-Bearer (Ивань Водоносьць). Once Again on Dualism in the Bosnian Church <p>The article examines the debate as to the direct influence of Bulgarian and Byzantine Bogomilism upon the doctrine of the Bosnian Church. The author traces some scholarly views <em>pro et</em> <em>contra </em>the presence, in the Bosnian-Slavic sources, of traces of neo-Manichean views on the Church, the Patristic tradition, and the sacraments. In analyzing two marginal glosses in the so-called <em>Srećković</em> <em>Gospel </em>in the context of some anti-Bogomil Slavic and Byzantine texts, the article attempts to establish the importance of Bulgarian and Byzantine Bogomilism for the formation of certain dogmatic and ecclesiological views in the doctrine of the Bosnian Church: the negative attitude towards the orthodox Churches, especially the Roman Catholic Church; the rejection of the sacrament of baptism and of St. John the Baptist; the rejection of the sacrament of confession, and hence, of the Eucharist. These doctrinal particularities of the Bosnian Church warrant the assertion that its teachings and liturgical practice differed significantly from the dogmatics and practice of the orthodox Churches. Without being a copy of the Bogomil communities, the Bosnian Church was certainly heretical, and neo-Manichean influences from the Eastern Balkans were an integral element of the Bosnian Christians’ faith.</p> Georgi Minczew Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Apocryphal Bulgarian Sermon of Saint John Chrysostom on the Оrigin of Paulicians and Manichean Dimensions of Medieval Paulician Identity <p>The article deals with one of the medieval Bulgarian sources about the origin of Paulicianism – the so called <em>Sermon of Saint John Chrysostom on the Оrigin of Paulicians</em>. On the basis of linguistic, textological and historical analysis it is concluded that the “sermon” appears to be a popular “contra version” of an unknown Paulician myth of historical and religious identity. It is suggested a reconstruction of this supposed myth and its obvious connections with Manicheism are traced out. Finally the traces of Manicheism in Paulician belief system are discussed.</p> Hristo Saldzhiev Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in the Mythologem of “Heavenly Customs”, between Rumanian Popular Books and Folklore <p>The article shows that the mythologem associated with the ascension of the soul, despite its very antique origin and its presence as a citation in the writings of the Fathers of the Eastern Church, emerges with time displaying specific connotations, thanks to which it enters the Gnostic imaginary, to be refracted later in Christianized key in the hagiographic-eschatological narrative hinged on S. Basil the Younger.</p> <p>Saint Basil, who lived in the 10th century and died probably circa 950, becomes a protagonist of a hagiographic narration. In fact, although the manuscript tradition received by <em>Acta Sanctorum</em> does not diverges from the canonical elements displayed by the life of a saint, a conspicuous numer of Greek testimonies introduces in the narration attributed to Gregory (a disciple of the saint), an eschatological part that includes a description of the afterworld, of the Hell and the punishments received by the sinners, together with textual inserts, considered to be later than the “life” as such. The narrative begins with the story of Theodora, who describes to Gregory the path of her soul through 21 heavenly customs.</p> <p>The mythologem of Theodora’s heavenly customs is attested by tens of codices from the whole Orthodox area, but it is the Rumanian area only to retransmit and rework, also at folkloric level, the suggestive belief in the heavenly customs. Dualistic memory, oral tradition, and Orthodox hagiography seem to blend, at last, without any contradiction into an extraordinarily vivid and imaginative psychanody.</p> Luisa Valmarin Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Burden, the Craving, the Tool. The Provisioning of the 10th Century Byzantine Army in the Light of Leo’s Tactica and Sylloge Tacticorum <p>It seems obvious that 10th century was a period in which the Byzantine polemology flourished once again, before it collapsed one hundred years later. During that period numerous authors of Byzantine military treaties instructed imperial commanders how to wage war. Among many issues organization of the campaign was always an important aspect. In this paper I will try to clarify selected problems. First, I will try to specify what the soldiers ate on a daily basis. Next, I will determine to what extent the provisioning system met the expectations and needs of the Byzantines fighting for the empire. With the help of <em>Tactica </em>and <em>Sylloge Tacticorum</em>, I will try to explain how the rations were gathered, transported and protected. Finally, I will specify how the supplies were utilized not only as a means of nourishment, but also as a tool of war. The following research was carried out on the basis of military treaties from the 10th century, since this time was the peak of Byzantine military revival. Although I mainly base my research on the work of Leon the Wise and the anonymous treaty known as <em>Sylloge Tacticorum</em>, I also occasionally refer to other works, such as <em>Peri Strategias</em>, <em>De velitatione</em> and <em>Praecepta Militaria</em>.</p> Szymon Wierzbiński Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Linguistic Creation of a City in the 16th-century Polish Accounts from Travels to the Holy Land <p>The article tries to describe the linguistic creation of a city in Polish 16th-century diaries from journeys to the Holy Land. During long trips, the authors visited many exotic, for the Polish traveller, cities and towns to whom they devoted a lot of space in their diaries. The analysis is based on findings of theory of linguistic image of a world and on the concept of linguistic creation and semiotic role. The author outlines the set of linguistic means used by the diarists to indicate various roles. He concludes that the image of a city presented in the analysed texts oscillates between traditional frame that has its source in the classical antiquity and modern perspective significant for the man of the Renaissance.</p> Rafał Zarębski Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 МАЯ ПЕТРОВА-ТАНЕВА, Помощница на царете: св. императрица Теофана в южнославянската традиция [Maja Petrova-Taneva, Supporter to the Tsars: Saint Empress Theophano in the South Slavic Tradition], Издателски център Боян Пенев, София 2018, pp. 335. Ivan Biliarsky Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 ПЛАМЕН ПАВЛОВ, Забравеното Средновековие [Plamen Pavlov, The Forgotten Middle Ages], Българска История, София 2019, pp. 303. Mirosław J. Leszka, Kirił Marinow Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 A Companion to the Byzantine Culture of War, ca. 300–1204, ed. Yannis Stouraitis, Brill, Leiden–Boston 2018 [= Brill’s Companions to the Byzantine World, 3], 6 maps, 3 figures, index, pp. X, 490. Tomasz Pełech Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Emperor in the Byzantine World. Papers from the Forty-Seventh Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, ed. Shaun Tougher, Routledge, New York–London 2019 [= Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies Publications, 21], 32 figures, index, pp. XXIII, 378. Tomasz Pełech Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Georgios Theotokis, Byzantine Military Tactics in Syria and Mesopotamia in the Tenth Century. A Comparative Study, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2018, pp. 348. Łukasz Różycki Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100