Studia Ceranea 2024-03-11T08:01:08+01:00 Jolanta Dybała Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The task that the Editorial Council of <em>Studia Ceranea</em> has set before itself is the gradual creation of a scientific journal, interdisciplinary in character, which will offer specialist articles, reviews and notes on newly published monographs. Along these lines, we will attempt to cross the limits of the narrow specializations restricted to Byzantine or Slavic studies; the papers contributed would represent various aspects of the Late Ancient, Byzantine and Slavic culture of the eastern Mediterranean Area <em>largissimo</em> <em>sensu</em> and South-East Europe, which – we claim – forms an integrity, for all its diversity. Consequently, the journal, based on previous models of other respectable journals devoted to similar subject matters,&nbsp; utilizes the methodology and achievements of disciplines used in the study of Late Antiquity, Middle Ages and early Modern Era and is ready to face the new challenges posed by contemporary humanist thought.</p> Diana Mishkova, Rival Byzantiums. Empire and Identity in Southeastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2023, pp. X, 357 2023-12-06T14:24:36+01:00 Ivan Biliarsky 2023-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ágnes Kriza, Depicting Orthodoxy in the Russian Middle Ages. The Novgorod Icon of Sophia, the Divine Wisdom, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2022 [= Oxford Studies in Byzantium], pp. 362 2024-03-01T15:21:15+01:00 Zofia A. Brzozowska 2023-12-07T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dominika Gapska, "Woman. Church. State. Cults of the Female Saints in the Writings of Serbian Orthodox Church", Scriptym, Cracow 2021, pp. 208 2024-03-01T15:20:51+01:00 Zofia A. Brzozowska 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Letopisi, chronographs, paratexts. Some remarks on the Eastern Slavic historical literature in the Middle Ages, on the Margins of the book by Timofei V. Guimon: Historical Writing of Early Rus (c. 1000–c. 1400) in a Comparative Perspective, Brill, Leiden–Boston 2021 [= East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450–1450, 71], pp. 778 2024-03-01T15:21:12+01:00 Zofia A. Brzozowska 2023-12-07T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Marcello Garzaniti, „Słowianie. Historia, kultury i języki” [„The Slavs. History, Cultures and Languages”], trans. J. Groblińska, K. Kowalik, A. Makowska-Ferenc, ed. Z.A. Brzozowska, P. Kręzel, J.M. Wolski, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź 2023, pp. 566 2024-02-12T15:48:23+01:00 Zofia A. Brzozowska Piotr Kręzel 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ascetismo y santidad en el Cercano Oriente cristiano (siglos IV–XIII), ed. Héctor Francisco Rodrigo, Laham Cohen, Pablo Ubierna, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas, Buenos Aires 2022, pp. 162 2023-12-07T10:37:19+01:00 Błażej Cecota 2023-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cristianos, judíos y gentiles. Reflexiones sobre la construcción de la identidad durante la Antigüedad Tardía, ed. Rodrigo Laham Cohen, Esteban Noce, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas, Buenos Aires 2021, pp. 146 2023-12-07T10:37:22+01:00 Błażej Cecota 2023-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ethno-Cultural Diversity in the Balkans and the Caucasus, ed. Ioana Aminian Jazi, Thede Kahl, Austrian Academy of Science Press, Vienna 2023 [= Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, 927], pp. 394 2023-12-07T10:37:24+01:00 Błażej Cecota 2023-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Migrations of baroque ideas in the lands of the Slavs. Justyna Romanowska, "Polsko-ukraińsko-rosyjskie konteksty poezji metafizycznej serbskiego baroku" ["Polish-Ukrainian-Russian contexts of Serbian Baroque metaphysical poetry"], Wydawnictwo Scriptum, Kraków 2022, pp. 262 2024-03-01T15:20:53+01:00 Piotr Kręzel 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ПРЕДРАГ КОМАТИНА, "Константин Порфирогенит и рана историја јужних Словена, уредник Љ. МАКСИМОВИЋ" [Predrag Komatina, "Constantine Porphyrogenitus and the Early History of South Slavs", ed. L. Maksimović], Византолошки институт САНУ, Београд 2021 [= Византолош Институт Српске Академије Наука и Уметности Посебна Издања / Institute for Byzantine Studies Serbian Academyof Sciences and Arts Monographs, 50], pp. 404 2024-03-01T15:20:49+01:00 Mirosław J. Leszka 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Old Church Slavonic Heritage in Slavonic and Other Languages, ed. Ilona Janyškova, Helena Karlikova, Vit Boček, Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, Praha 2021 [= Studia etymologica Brunensia, 25], p. 340 2023-12-06T14:43:17+01:00 Halyna Naienko 2023-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Radu G. Păun, Ivan Biliarsky, Du combat pour la «juste foi» au péché politique. Pour une histoire du Synodikon de l’Orthodoxie, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2022 [= Schriften zur Balkanforschung, 4], pp. 415 2023-12-06T14:37:14+01:00 Jan Mikołaj Wolski 2023-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Role of the Byzantine Navy in the Actions of Emperor Louis II of Italy against Bari in 866–871. Louis II’s Letter of 871 to Emperor Basil I (867–886) – as a Source for Marine Military Studies? 2024-03-01T15:20:46+01:00 Marcin Böhm <p>The rivalry between the Carolingians and the Byzantines in Italy during the second half of the 9th century faced a new threat – the rise of Islam. Despite the need to unite against the common enemy, mutual suspicion between these two centres of imperial power persisted. This is evident in their joint efforts to confront the Muslim outpost in Apulia, the Emirate of Bari. This article aims to examine the role of the Byzantine fleet in the actions of Emperor Louis II (825–875) during the campaign to eliminate the Emirate of Bari – a task in which the Carolingian ruler was successful. The primary source for this investigation is Louis II’s letter of 871 to Emperor Basil I (867–886). In the letter, the author identifies the links between the activities of Muslims in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas and their strongholds in Sicily and Africa. Consequently, the author outlines a logical plan to expel the Saracens from Italy, particularly from Campania (Naples) and Calabria, with a crucial role assigned to the Byzantine fleet. The Franks intended to coordinate land operations with the Byzantines in Sicily, aiming to reclaim Palermo – a city, according to the letter, closely linked to the Muslim piracy. However, this plan was based on wishful thinking, as it failed to consider the dispersion of the Byzantine navy, which was simultaneously engaged in conflicts against the forces of the Abbasids, the emirate of Crete, and the Slavic pirates in the Adriatic Sea. These factors, coupled with a growing aversion between the Franks and the Byzantines, ultimately led to the collapse of the alliance and their plans. Despite later successes, the Byzantine fleet was unable to provide timely aid to Sicily and actively counter the advance of Islam on the island.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Planning in the Middle Byzantine Period: A "Limitrophe" Policy Reintroduced? 2024-03-01T15:20:37+01:00 Dragan Gjalevski <p>In order to maintain or improve its political stability and overall might every state conducts certain policies, both domestic and foreign, throughout its history. They are usually a result of a systematic planning, encompassing in the process multiple state sectors. The Byzantine Empire was no exception. Throughout centuries of existence, the imperial government implemented numerous reforms and carried out reorganisation in the military, administrative and fiscal departments, with the intention to improve its governance. Creation of the military commands – <em>strategides, thémata</em> and <em>tágmata</em> corps are only some of the changes, and their implementation certainly required prior planning in accordance with the requirements and capacity of the state. In relation to foreign policy, starting from the mid-ninth century, a formation of a number of client states that were more or less politically dependent on Constantinople can be observed on the Byzantine borders; their existence ended around the mid-eleventh century. This paper aims to examine the process of establishing client states on the Byzantine borders, i.e., whether it was a policy initiated and subsequently applied by the imperial government as a result of some pre-determined planning, or whether it was just an <em>ad hoc</em> solution.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>This paper was presented on the 24th International Congress of Byzantine Studies, Venice and Padua, 22-27 August 2022.</em></p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Night Combat in Late Antiquity in the Light of Roman Military Treatises 2024-03-01T15:21:22+01:00 Łukasz Różycki <p>The aim of the text entitled: <em>Night Combat in Late Antiquity in the Light of Roman Military Treatises</em> is to present the theory and practice of night combat in the 6<sup>th</sup> century. Based on source analysis (military treatises – mainly <em>Strategicon</em>, and Late Roman and Byzantine historiography), the author presented the theory and practice of night fighting. Apart from classical methods of analysis, the psychology of the battlefield was also used. This gives us a complete picture of how Byzantines use the night as an advantage on the battlefield.</p> 2023-12-07T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Between Rus’, Byzantium, and the Nomads Tmutarakan’ in the Narrative of the Rusian “Primary Chronicle” 2024-03-01T15:20:34+01:00 Arkadiusz Siwko <p>The article is an attempt to provide a source analysis of the mentions of Tmutarakan’ contained in the <em>Primary Chronicle</em> – the oldest surviving monument of medieval Rusian historiography. In the text, particular emphasis is placed on the narrative strategy of the source and the image of the borderlands of Rus’ contained therein. The author reflects on the place of information about events in the remote “exclave” of the Rurikids domain in the story about the dynasty and the territorial expansion of its state and formulates hypotheses about their origin. In addition, using the <em>List of Rusian further and closer gords</em> as a basis, he raises the question of the functioning of Tmutarakan’ in minds of the authors and recipients of later texts.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authenticity of the “Interrogatio” Iohannis in the Light of Contemporary Deconstructionist Source Criticism 2024-03-01T15:23:06+01:00 Piotr Czarnecki <p>Scholars of Catharism representing the deconstructionist current in the recent years continue their struggle with the traditional interpretation of this heresy which underlines its dualistic character and strong connections with Eastern dualisms – especially with Bogomilism. Their tactics is focused primarily on questioning the authenticity of the sources confirming Cathar dualism and its Eastern roots. Such sources are presented as forgeries invented by the Catholics trying to discredit the “dissidents”. This tactic is directed primarily against the sources of heretical provenience, which are the strongest arguments against the deconstructionist interpretation. Previously, the deconstructionist scholars questioned the acts of the Cathar council in Saint-Felix-De-Caraman, and the so-called “Manichaean treatise” – a Cathar theological work aimed at proving ontological dualism based on the specific interpretation of numerous biblical passages. Currently the deconstructionists speak about the need for verification of another Cathar dualistic treatise – <em>Liber De Duobus pricipiis</em>. Considering this we may expect that soon also the <em>Interrogatio Iohannis</em> will be questioned, as it is a crucial source confirming both the dualism of the Cathars and their dependence on the Bogomils. Before it happens I decided to take a closer look at this apocryphal text. Through the analysis of its doctrine in the light of the Eastern sources concerning the Bogomils I am going to answer the question of whether this work, known only from the Latin manuscripts, indeed could have been created by the Bogomils and if it is possible to question its authenticity using the patterns used by the deconstructionist scholars.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Epistle on the Celebration of Easter (CPG 4612): Transmission and Context of the Slavonic Version in the Late 15th–16th Centuries 2024-03-01T15:20:20+01:00 Viacheslav V. Lytvynenko <p>This article examines the Slavonic version of the <em>Epistle on the Celebration of Easter</em> (CPG 4612) by focusing on the issues of transmission and context. It begins with a brief overview of the manuscript tradition and the title of this writing, and then asks what function the epistle carried in medieval Russia where it was copied. The author argues that this function was primarily theological rather than technical (related purely to paschal calculations and calendar). For that purpose, the author does several things. First, he shows that there are good reasons to assume that this epistle was perceived as part of the Athanasian corpus of <em>Orations against the Arians</em>, whose copying was occasioned by the rise of the Judaizers – a group of Russian heretics that denied the most fundamental Orthodox doctrines and exploited the eschatological crisis in 1492 to lead the Christians astray. And second, the author explores the evidence from Iosif Volockij and comes to the conclusion that his <em>Enlightener</em> contains similar theological concerns about the celebration of Easter as we find in the epistle.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Contribution to the History of Repentance Prayers in the Slavic South during the 15th Century 2024-03-01T15:23:15+01:00 Mariyana Tsibranska-Kostova <p>The article explores and offers a diplomatic edition of <em>A Very Useful Confession for Unction for Every Christian, for the Black and White Clergy</em>. This is an autograph by Vladislav the Grammarian placed in the Trebnik of Monk David (1480s), manuscript 1/42 in the collection of the Rila Monastery. The analysis is based on the working hypothesis that after the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans was perceived as a God’s punishment for the sins of the Orthodox Christians. This idea became strongly present in a number of texts. Penitential prayer patterns multiply in the literature. The Greek prototype of the text under study has not been identified yet, but features a close relation to the prayers with the so-called <em>accumulation of sins</em>. It is, in essence, a confession which is performed in connection with the sacrament of the eleosvet (anointing of the sick) before receiving communion and the anointing with holy oil. The textual unit was purposefully introduced into Monk David’s Trebnik and reflected topical textual additions to the basic composition of the Slavonic Trebnik.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Garum or Grain? Crimea and the Provisioning of Constantinople (7th to 9th centuries) 2024-03-11T08:01:08+01:00 Florin Curta <p>Historians have relied for too long on written sources (the letters that Pope Martin I wrote from Cherson, as well as <em>De Administrando Imperio</em>) to assess the economic situation in the Crimea, especially in Cherson, during the so-called Dark Ages (7th to 9th centuries). Many still believe that that city could not have survived without shipments of grain from the outside, particularly from the lands along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Seals of Byzantine officials found in Cherson tell a different story, as they indicate commercial exchanges between the Crimea and Constantinople. If the peninsula participated in trade, something must have been offered in exchange for the goods coming from the Capital. The archaeological evidence strongly suggests that during the 8th and 9th centuries, the hinterland of Cherson, as well as the Kerch Peninsula (eastern Crimea) witnessed rapid economic development, largely based on the cultivation of crops. Silos found on several settlement sites, both open and fortified, suggest a surplus, which was most likely commercialized. If so, the closest markets were across the Black Sea, to the south, primarily in Constantinople. Other commodities, such as wine transported in amphorae, traveled in the opposite direction, across the Sea of Azov and into the interior of Khazaria. In exchange, the peninsula received shipments of grain, which were then re-exported to Constantinople. Far from relying on shipments of grain from the Capital, Cherson and the rest of the Crimean Peninsula in fact supplied Constantinople with food. Numerous vats for the production of fish sauce have been found in Cherson, and many were in operation before 900. A good deal of the garum served at tables in Constantinople between the 7th and the 9th century must have come from Cherson. The archaeological evidence therefore calls for a re-assessment of the economic situation in the Crimean Peninsula during the “Dark Ages”.</p> 2023-10-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Food for Life: Galen’s "On Health" ("De sanitate tuenda") 2024-03-01T15:23:11+01:00 John Wilkins <p>In Galen’s view, health was a natural state and disease unnatural. If a body became unwell, balance was best restored by adjustments to daily life, in particular to the environment, food and drink, exercise, sleep, physiological balance and mental health. If none of these worked, only then should drugs or more drastic treatments be considered. Galen sets out in <em>On Health</em> how the natural state is best preserved, starting from birth, through childhood, to adulthood and old age. There are several features to be noted, not least the relentlessly male focus (with childbirth the major area of consideration for women specifically) and the use of the idealised young man as the canon against which to measure all bodies. This latter feature has led commentators to suppose that Galen only has the leisured rich class in mind, wrongly I believe. Two recent translations in the Loeb series (Johnston) and in the CUP Galen series (Singer forthcoming) have made the text readily available to all, and further discussion is timely. In my paper I will focus on Galen’s use of diet and massage to keep the body healthy. I shall also consider the unhealthy body which takes up the last three of the six books, as the life span nears later age and greater fragility. Even here, Galen prefers food and gentle remedies to bloodletting and drugs (which are in effect often stronger versions of food plants). Galen claims that this regime has kept him healthy for 50 years, despite his less than perfect constitution and lifestyle. He is thus a doctor who experiments on himself to promote a lifestyle which, he claims, should, after an initial assessment, maintain the patient without need of a doctor for life.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 “The Navigators”. Mediterranean Cities and Urban Spaces in the Passage from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages (ca. 600 – ca. 850 CE) 2024-03-01T15:20:30+01:00 Luca Zavagno <p>The aim of the paper is to reassess urban trajectories in the Mediterranean during the passage from Late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages. This will be done by focusing on the sites of Amorium, Gortyn, Eleutherna, and Comacchio, places which transcend both the terrestrial and maritime, and the political and military frontiers of the Byzantine empire and the Umayyad Caliphate. Archaeology and material culture will be used – in a comparative perspective – to dissect urban bodies in terms of use of space and function of spatial relationship. This is in order to document the construction of urban models, structures, and infrastructures, which, although often stemming from diverse centralized political and administrative policies, nevertheless accommodated common, cross-cultural developments, including the creation of commercial and artisanal facilities, construction or restoration of religious buildings as foci of settlement, and resilience of local elites as a catalyst of patronage and levels of demand.</p> <p>Particular attention will be given to the role of public spaces as the frame of reference. Indeed, such spaces will be used to show how artistic and architectural displays operated, cultural assumptions could be (re-) discussed, and different types of buildings coexisted. </p> <p>In this respect, the paper will also explore the continuous importance of civic infrastructures and religious buildings as pillars of a yet coherent urban fabric, representatives of the power and wealth of local city-oriented elites, and conveyors of political, artistic, and spatial symbolism, as mutually recognized and experienced by the communities frequenting seventh-to-ninth century eastern Mediterranean urban spaces.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Birth of the Myth About the Byzantine-Bulgarian War of 863 2024-03-01T15:20:32+01:00 Kostiantyn Bardola <p>The Byzantine-Bulgarian relationship from the mid-9th to the early 10th century has attracted the attention of historians for years. However, this topic is fraught with multiple myths and misconceptions. The Byzantine invasion of Bulgarian territories in 863 is one of these myths. This hypothesis became part of the master narrative of Bulgarian national historiography and significantly impacted the clarification of the actual motivation of all parties in the complex political process. However, an analysis of sources shows that the military raid under Basileus Michael III and Caesar Bardas into Bulgarian territory is nothing more than fiction. According to a new Byzantine propaganda policy, this narrative was created after the mid-10th century. This research observes how a simple interpolation becomes a historiographical hypothesis and the dominant historiographical narrative. Additionally, a new interpretation of the beginning of Bulgarian Christianization is proposed.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Justinian, Pilgrimages and the Theotokos: Imperial Propaganda in De Aedificiis V 2024-03-01T15:20:25+01:00 Martina Biamino <p>This article analyses Book V of <em>De Aedificiis</em>, specifically focusing on <em>Aed</em>. V, 6–9. Building on previous studies that demonstrate Procopius’ journey within this book along an ancient road traditionally used by pilgrims, it is noted how, in what can be considered the second part of the book, the historian focuses on the churches built by Justinian for the <em>Theotokos</em>, all situated on high points in Palestine. Based on this, the article seeks to explain how this insistence on the churches of the Virgin on hillsides, combined with the theme of pilgrimage, serves court propaganda, which may have promoted a de-Judaization and a de-Nestorianization of Palestine. Additionally, it is hypothesized that Procopius may have drawn inspiration, given the subject matter, from a genre closely related to pilgrimage, such as that of <em>itineraria</em>.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 “Ex Marte se procreatum” – Did the Roman Emperor Galerius Make Mars his Personal Protective Deitie? 2024-03-01T15:21:18+01:00 Sławomir Bralewski <p>Lactantius referred in his work <em>On the Deaths of the Persecutors </em>(<em>De mortibus persecutorum</em>) to a great victory which Caesar Galerius won over the Persians. From then on, he demanded for himself the title of Augustus and, we are made to believe, insisted upon being called a son of Mars as second Romulus. Did he thus deviate from the truth? Or, on the contrary, did Galerius render Mars his divine patron and does Lactantius’ account remain in agreement with other sources and reflect the true course of events. The aim in this article is to resolve this issue.</p> <p>It thus seems that as a result of the triumph over the Persians, which he was believed to owe to Mars, Galerius gained a new position already under the first tetrarchy, which Lactantius testifies to in his work <em>On the Deaths of the Persecutors</em>. It is thus clear that Lactantius’s testimony according to which Galerius recognized Mars as his divine patron is credible and remains in agreement both with a number of other sources and with the true course of events.</p> 2023-12-07T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Jewish Theme in Theophanes the Confessor’s Testimony on the Prophet Muḥammad 2023-10-13T23:56:50+02:00 Błażej Cecota <p>Theophanes’ account regarding the rise of Islam and the history of the Prophet Muḥammad appears to be the most detailed and precise one that can be found in Byzantine historiography. The Confessor’s aim was to reproduce as many details about Muḥammad’s life as possible. Since his focus was not on religious ideas, but on key events surrounding the rise of the new religion, his account is not predominantly concerned with discussing Islam’s ideology. However, this does not allow us to regard it as in any way objective. Some of the views it contains were included with the clear goal of discrediting Islam as a religion that rivalled Christianity. This, for example, can be said of Theophanes’ remarks about the relationship between Muḥammad and the Jews. In this article, I focus on this aspect of Theophanes’ account, discussing it in the context of the long-running (the last several decades) scholarly debates regarding Jewish-Muslim relations.</p> 2023-10-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Translating the Slavonic Present Participles in the Early Romanian Psalters (16th Century) 2023-12-07T10:37:34+01:00 Ion-Mihai Felea <p>It is often said that early Romanian biblical translations from Church Slavonic follow the source texts slavishly. This is believed to be especially true about the 16<sup>th</sup> century Romanian Psalters, a group of seven texts (both printed and hand-copied) descending from a single translation. Indeed, these texts stay close to their Church Slavonic originals in topic, lexical content, and orthographical rules. However, we aim to describe how the 16<sup>th</sup> century translators and redactors dealt with Church Slavonic structures that could not be easily adapted into Romanian by means of formal equivalence. The Slavonic present participle, which appears plenty in the Slavonic Psalter, was chosen as litmus test. While theoretically having a formal correspondent in Old Romanian (the gerund), the Slavonic present participle has a range of uses and meanings that the Old Romanian gerund lacks. Thus, Romanian scribes must depart from the comfort of formal equivalence that calques and loans provide and choose the translation that convey meaning. The dynamic equivalence is obtained by selecting different solutions: gerunds, adjectives, objects and, most often, clauses, especially relative ones. Rendering participles with clauses (i.e. adjectives with verbs) forces the translator to make decisions going beyond the Slavonic participle itself. The analysis shows a tension between betraying the Slavonic text as little as possible and rendering it to the best of the redactor’s ability.</p> 2023-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Herbs as pharmaka: between Medicine, Astrology and Magic 2023-10-16T09:43:01+02:00 Giulia Freni <p>In the ancient and Byzantine world, natural elements were used to cure a certain disease, as attested by traditional medical sources such as Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Galen. However, the therapeutic properties of these substances are also described in some compilations that transmit another type of knowledge: the <em>Cyranides</em>, a hermetic work that illustrates the usages of vegetable, animal and mineral species for different purposes; Cassianus Bassus’ <em>Geoponica</em>, an important source of the ancient agronomic-botanical tradition; the <em>Hygromanteia Salomonis</em>, a hermetic and esoteric treatise dedicated to planetary divination, which also illustrates the correspondences between plants, planets and zodiac signs. The herbs described in these compilations are suggested as φάρμακα for the treatment of diseases, but also for other purposes such as warding off demons or having luck (e.g. in <em>Monacensis</em> gr. 70, which transmits <em>Hygromanteia Salomonis</em>, Jupiter’s plant is χρυσάγκαθον, capable of causing extraordinary healings). This denotes the development of a parallel medicine, connected with magic and astrology, and in some cases the practices discussed still have folkloric implications today. Therefore, this contribution intends to analyse these three magico- -medical works, highlighting the similarities and differences from traditional medical sources as well as the link between medicine, magic and astrology.</p> 2023-10-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Church Architecture in Southwestern Bulgaria in the Late 9th – Early 11th Century (Based on Archaeological Data) 2024-03-01T15:23:08+01:00 Miroslava Georgieva <p>This publication is devoted to the church architecture in Southwestern Bulgaria (now Blagoevgrad region) during the First Bulgarian Tsardom, in the period from the end of the 9th to the beginning of the 11th century. From the second half of the 9th century (specifically from 864) the territories of the region under consideration officially entered the borders of the medieval Bulgarian state, which coincided with the conversion to Christianity in Bulgaria (865). The studied region covers the valleys of the rivers of Struma (Middle Struma) and Mesta (Upper and Middle Mesta), which were part of the southwestern borders of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages. At present, three churches can be attributed to this period, all excavated through regular archaeological excavations. These are the Basilica of St. Nicholas in the town of Melnik, the single-nave church in the area of Shipotsko at the town of Bansko and the three-conchal church at the village of Kulata, Petrich municipality. In terms of their functional characteristics, these churches include an episcopal (or parish) church (“St. Nicholas” in Melnik), a cemetery church (the church in the area of Shipotsko near the town of Bansko) and a monastery church (the church at the village of Kulata). Characteristic for the first two is their construction on older cult sites – on an ancient sanctuary and an early Christian church (the church “St. Nicholas” in Melnik) and on an early Christian temple (the church in the area of Shipotsko, at the town of Bansko). The small number of excavated church buildings from the First Bulgarian Tsardom is also typical for the rest of the Bulgarian lands. Although the examples from the region are few, they show that almost all major architectural types are found here.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rus and Khazars 2024-03-01T15:22:44+01:00 James Howard-Johnston <p>The southern thrust of the Rus in the ninth–tenth centuries is to be explained not only by Viking hunger for wealth and glory, but also by the large, rapidly growing market for furs in the Caliphate. In order to reach that market, the Rus had to cross the Khazars’ sphere of influence in the steppes and wooded steppes of the Volga and Don regions. The khaganate was a great power, which presided over many client peoples. It was perhaps awareness of the potential threat posed by the Rus which prompted the Khazars to improve their northern defences in the 830s. There is clear evidence that they then extended their authority over the Rus, their khagan being acknowledged as Rus ruler. The subsequent history of the Rus, up to their successful rebellion in 965, can only be understood if account is taken of Khazar influence and of wider geopolitical circumstances. The following propositions, all to some extent conjectural, are put forward: (1) that the first Rus attack on Constantinople in 860 was a show of force, timed to coincide with several Arab raids on Byzantine territory, and that it was initiated by the Khazars at the urging of the central Abbasid authorities; (2) that Byzantium was seeking a useful ally both against the Balkan Bulgars and against the Sajids of Azerbaijan, when it offered substantial trade concessions to the Rus in 911, that no objection was made by the Khazars, who had recently faced problems from the Oghuz Turks and their Pecheneg clients, and that the treaty resulted in a damaging Rus raid in the Caspian region after 912–913; (3) that there was a serious deterioration in Khazar-Byzantine relations in the 920s; (4) that the second Rus attack on Constantinople in 941 (this time in great force) was instigated by the Khazars, in response to an abortive Rus rebellion; and (5) that the Rus subsequently patched up relations with the Khazars, who allowed them to invade Azerbaijan in 944–945, and made peace with the Byzantines, signing a new trade treaty in 944. Apart from some evidence of assimilation of Khazar customs, it was the division of the Rus into twenty or so distinct principalities which was the principal longterm outcome of Khazar influence.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Remarks on Captives and Warriors in an Old Bulgarian Collection of Miracle Stories 2024-03-01T15:21:07+01:00 Yanko M. Hristov Dafina Kostadinova <p>When scholars’ efforts are focused on the ethnic, religious and social diversity in certain parts of the Byzantine commonwealth during the middle ages, the hagiographic literature stands out as a key primary source. One such source is a voluminous early tenth-century collection of miracle stories titled <em>A Tale of the Iron Cross</em>. Its essential role when trying to uncover data, specific information and truths about Bulgaria’s medieval past is undeniable. A number of highly informative records have been found and are well-preserved within the covers of this impressive literary work. Many of them have been used repeatedly in various scholars’ academic initiatives and undertakings. However, other Tale’s records, regardless of their unique peculiarities and immeasurable contemporary information, still remain outside of the main research work when it comes to the subject matter of captivity and warfare.</p> 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nunnery Life in 16th Century Wallachia – Muşa/Magdalina before and after Taking Vows 2024-03-01T15:21:25+01:00 Liviu Marius Ilie <p>The Wallachian monasteries are very well documented in the 16<sup>th</sup> century, but the life of nuns or monks after joining the monastery is a lesser-known aspect. Various details can be found in the life of a noblewoman (taking the name of Mușa), who decided to become a nun (Magdalina) during the first years of the 16<sup>th</sup> century. Mușa’s life before entering the monastery is not very well known. Although many researchers tried to link her to the Craiovescu family, one of the most influential families in Wallachia at that time, this paper argues against this opinion. The historical sources describe her as a relative of a Wallachian nobleman, Cârjeu, and as the wife of Hamza, another important nobleman from the first decades of the 16<sup>th</sup> century. Mușa took vows in the monastery, which she built, and even after she became a nun, she preserved some of her former habits. Thus, the nun Magdalina kept in her possession villages and Roma families, which she donated to different monasteries, a widespread situation in the Byzantine monasticism. Although the sources did not describe her everyday life as a nun, they documented her relations with the political and ecclesiastical elites.</p> 2023-12-07T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hadrian, a Numismatic Lapse, and… Janus 2024-03-01T15:21:10+01:00 Agata A. Kluczek <p>The image of the “founder”, who marks the boundaries of the city with a plough drawn by a pair of animals was one of the obvious themes placed on the reverses of colonial coins. Such a symbolic foundation scene (<em>aratrum</em> motif) was also one of the leading themes on coins from the colonial mint in Parium in the east of the Roman Empire. During the reign of Hadrian (AD 117–138), this mint issued coins (RPC 3, nos 1539 and 1540), which, apart from the <em>aratrum</em> motif, have an unobvious legend on their reverses, especially in its connection with the obverse inscription on these coins.</p> 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 How to Glow and Stay Fresh: Some Advice on Deodorants Penned by Aetius of Amida 2024-03-01T15:21:05+01:00 Maciej Kokoszko Zofia Rzeźnicka <p>As far as women’s wellbeing is concerned, ancient and Byzantine physicians took great care not only of their patients’ health <em>sensu</em> <em>stricto</em> but also of their appearance. A testimony of the approach is given, for instance, by Aetius of Amida’s (6th cent. AD) <em>Libri medicinales</em>, where he devotes much attention to cosmetics, including a group of deodorising antiperspirants called καταπάσματα. In our study we analyse one prescription, taken by Aetius from Criton of Heraclea’s (1st/2nd cent. AD) treatise, trying to prove that it is very informative of medical (especially pharmaceutical) theory as well as practice in the social context of the 6th century AD.</p> <p>In order to achieve our goal, first, we analyse ancient and Byzantine <em>materia medica</em>, scrutinizing the medical properties ascribed to each component of the cosmetic in the light of the theory in force between the 1st and the 6th centuries AD. Next, we determine the method of preparation of the antiperspirant, its form, the mode and place of its application. Finally, we proceed to assess its market value as a marker exposing the group of the cosmetic’s addressees. As a result, we conclude that the recipe was competently worked out on the basis of a theory commonly accepted by medical authorities, and that the preparation was designed for women (but also for men) of a high social status.</p> 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Representing the Phlegm: the Portrait of the Phlegmatic in Cesare Ripa’s Iconology 2023-10-13T23:56:53+02:00 Magdalena Koźluk <p>This article is the second in a series of works which aims to contribute to documenting the success of the medical theory of individual complexions, derived from the theory of the four humours, through the major work which constitutes the <em>Iconologia</em> of the Italian humanist Cesare Ripa (1555–1622). We analysed here the figure of the phlegmatic and undertook to determine the reasons which governed the choice of the attributes retained by Ripa (portliness, pallor of the skin, coat in badger furs, tilted head and girded with a black headband, turtle) to offer poets, painters and sculptors the archetype of a character dominated by cold and damp phlegm. To this end, we have been interested in the medical and iconographic sources on which the author was able to rely and have tried to identify the attributes which are part of tradition and those which testify to an <em>inuentio</em> of the author in the iconographic art.</p> 2023-10-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Basil I’s Path to Power according to the Vita Basilii as a Heroic Myth 2023-10-16T09:43:05+02:00 Łukasz Kubicki <p>This paper aims to illustrate how the tradition of Basil I’s rise to power in the <em>Vita Basilii</em> includes elements typical of heroic myths, according to Joseph Campbell’s monomyth scheme. The study presented here will examine how the narrative contains features such as a call to adventure, a series of trials and a motive for return. Moreover, the study seeks to investigate how these universal elements of hero stories have been mythicised by literary devices such as the topoi, text composition, intertextual references or symbolic content coherent with the perception of the ideological role of the Byzantine rulers. Within this framework, the study will aim to explore the morphology of these narratives and reconsider some historical questions with the help of Mircea Eliade’s theory of myth. It will focus on the identity and legitimising functions of the story for Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus and assess its impact on the position of the Macedonian dynasty in the social order and the sphere of political activity.</p> 2023-10-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Traces of Pre-Greek Linguistics Substratum in Early Byzantine Toponymy: Lists Related to Macedonia and Thessaly in Procopius’ "Buildings" 2024-03-01T15:21:01+01:00 Jasminka Kuzmanovska <p>In our contribution, we will focus on the traces of the old Pre-Greek linguistics substratum in certain names of forts from Justinian’s building program presented in the Procopius’ <em>Buildings</em> (<em>Περὶ κτισμάτ</em>ων, <em>De aedificiis</em>). Actually, the Book IV of the panegyric features a description of fortifications, built and restored by the Emperor Justinian in the European territories. This is the most detailed book in the work, written with great care and completeness, most likely due to the fact that the danger of barbarian incursions in these areas was the greatest. In the paper we will present certain examples of place names which obviously contain remnants of relict languages as very important and valuable toponomastic evidence, typical for the broader area. We are going to inspect the etymology of the place names by Procopius attested as Λάρισσα, Γόμφοι, Λόσσονος, Πέλεκον, Χάραδρος and Βάβας. If possible, we will comparatively examine testimonies from other ancient and medieval sources, as well as epigraphic and archeological data for each name.</p> 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Heraclius. A Commander in the Service of Leo I and Zeno 2024-03-01T15:23:03+01:00 Mirosław J. Leszka <p>Heraclius’ career, the one that can be traced in primary sources, lasted seven years. In its course he held the position of <em>comes rei militaris</em> and, perhaps, <em>magister militum vacans</em> and <em>magister militum per Thracias</em>. His greatest victories came in a war against the Vandals. They forced Gaiseric, the Vandal’s leader to undertake peace negotiations. However, these victories were eclipsed by Heraclius’ failures in the fight against Theodoric Strabo’s Goths and by the shameful circumstances of his death.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kidney Diseases in the Treatise "Dynameron" of Aelius Promotus (2nd Century AD) A Comparison with Dioscorides and Nikolaos Myrepsos 2024-03-01T15:20:59+01:00 Marios Marselos Elias Valiakos <p><em>Dynameron</em> is a medical treatise from the 2nd century AD, written in Greek by an Alexandrian physician named Aelius Promotus. A copy made in Sicily during the 16th century is kept in the Marciana Library of Venice (Codex gr. Ζ. 295). In 130 chapters, <em>Dynameron</em> contains 870 recipes for the treatment of various diseases. Regarding the kidneys, Aelius describes 32 recipes with herbal (59), animal (6) and mineral (1) ingredients, with diuretic, spasmolytic, analgesic, or antiseptic properties, suitable for treating nephrolithiasis, strangury, dysuria and renal inflammations. Several diuretics of Aelius Promotus are similar to those found in <em>De Materia Medica</em> of Dioscorides (1st century AD). On the other hand, all of them are also included in the treatise <em>Dynameron</em> of Nikolaos Myrepsos, written in the 13th century AD. When the recipes are evaluated as a whole, it is evident that Aelius Promotus was a competent practising physician in a city with a glorious tradition in medicine and sciences.</p> 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bankers and Usurers in the Early Byzantine Hagiographical Texts 2024-03-01T15:21:03+01:00 Ireneusz Milewski <p>The text discusses accounts from early Byzantine hagiographical texts depicting the activities of bankers and usurers in the period from the early 5th to the second decade of the 7th century. Texts by Palladius of Helenopolis, John of Ephesus, John Moschos, and Leontius of Neapolis are analysed. In the collated material we find relatively little information depicting the activities of bankers and usurers. Neither do we find any further details of the conditions under which money loans were granted. However, we note the statement that the cancellation of a loan, even if forced by circumstances (even if due to the intervention of a holy man), is charitable in nature and the ‘lost’ capital by the creditor in such a case bears the characteristics of a merciful deed. Most of the analysed accounts are presented in a somewhat fanciful way, which, however, should not question the information conveyed by the narrative. Two aspects of the analysed accounts are most significant. Firstly, the absence of any criticism of the Alexandrian Church deriving, even if not high, some profits (interest) from monetary loans. Secondly, in the accounts analysed we note a peculiar narrative, or in fact a new way of reasoning, by means of which the authors wanted to reach their audience, the potential benefactors. Thus, we become acquainted with somewhat naïve tales of how the benefits of granting a non-refundable loan to the needy, not only to the poor but also to merchants who traded on the high seas (?) would quite quickly return to the merciful benefactor, in a tangible material benefit, while he was still alive. We do not find such an argument in the patristic texts of the 4th and 5th centuries, where accounts of this kind merely refer to a prediction or even a guarantee of ‘heavenly interest’ that could tip the scales in favour of the merciful donor (creditor) at the Last Judgement.</p> 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Female Monastic Patronage in Medieval Georgia: Queen Tamar and Her Monastery in Tighva 2024-03-01T15:20:44+01:00 Natia Natsvlishvili <p>Tighva Monastery was founded by Queen Consort Tamar, the daughter of David the Builder, a famous Georgian king who succeeded in uniting the country and making it a dominant regional power. According to the written sources, Tamar was married to Shah Manuchehr III, the Muslim ruler of Shirvan (modern Azerbaijan) around 1111, in order to “rule over Shirvan”. Tamar lived and reigned in the Muslim court for more than twenty years. Resulting from a need to secure a retirement home and final resting place, she initiated the construction of Tighva Monastery soon after her return to Georgia in the 1140s. As her husband Manuchehr died in 1160, it seems that Tamar left Shirvan still a married woman, for unknown reasons. Tamar cut ties with her family and spent the remainder of her life as a nun in Tighva.</p> <p>The Church of the Crucifixion in Tighva Monastery, which represents the main focus of this paper, gives a good example of how the place occupied by women during the Divine Liturgy not only indicated their social status, but also determined their visibility, demonstrating how architecture could be used to establish the limits of physical appearance of royal women in the twelfth century Georgian monastic space.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Hymnography in Honour of Saints Constantine and Helena and its Connection with Imperial Ideology 2023-10-13T23:57:06+02:00 Anastasia Nikolaou <p>This article presents an overview of published and unpublished Byzantine and post-Byzantine hymnographic texts dedicated to Saint Constantine, founder of Constantinople and first Byzantine emperor, and his mother Saint Helena. Specifically, we cite and comment upon some indicative passages primarily found in canons of the Matins, which refer to historical events from the lives of the saints and attribute to them, especially to Saint Constantine, virtues such as justice, piety, wisdom, and the defense of the true faith. These qualities are directly associated with the imperial political ideology as this was shaped principally by Eusebius of Caesarea in his works <em>Life of Constantine</em> and <em>Tricennial Oration</em>.</p> 2023-10-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Clergy during the Fourth Crusade as Portrayed in Geoffrey de Villehardouin’s Chronicle 2023-10-16T09:42:56+02:00 Zdzisław Pentek <p>An article analysing information about the clerics during the Fourth Crusade mentioned by the chronicler of this expedition, Geoffrey of Villehardouin († c. 1219), in the Old French chronicle <em>La conquête de Constantinople</em>. The author has distinguished three types of clerics, participants in the crusade, and traced mentions thereof in the work and the opinions about them.</p> 2023-10-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Monastery near Kıyıköy in European Turkey 2024-03-01T15:20:27+01:00 Alexandar Portalsky Mariya Bagasheva <p>The monastery near today’s Kıyıköy settlement on the Black Sea coast is a very interesting rock-cut complex. It probably inherited an ancient sanctuary near the ancient Thracian and Roman city of Salmydessos, which became an important Christian center in the vicinity of Constantinople. In this text, we briefly review the historical information about the city, then describe the monastery, because there has been only one scientific publication since 1970 and the monastery is very difficult to access. We apply the three plans of the monastery that have been published since the 19th century to trace the change in the condition of the rock and the rooms that have been added. Then we analyze the architectural program and types of decoration of the three-nave basilica and the sacred spring, which have no exact analogue and are comparable both to examples from antiquity and to the best temples in the Byzantine capital. Based on this analysis, we assume three construction periods – ancient, from the time of Justinian and from the end of the iconoclastic period after the destruction of the city by the Bulgarian Khan Krum.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Usage of Scriptural Nativity Motifs in Early Greek and Slavonic Hymnography 2024-03-01T15:20:40+01:00 Enrique Santos Marinas <p>In this article I will make a survey of the usage of the main nativity motifs that can be found in early Greek and Slavonic hymnography, such as the <em>kata stichon</em> hymns. Moreover, I will compare them with the nativity motifs that are mentioned in several works belonging to the homiletic literature, such as Pseudo-Chrysostom’s sermon known as<em> In illud, Memor fui Dei, et delectatus sum</em> or <em>St. Proclus’ Oratio in natalem diem Domini</em>, as well as with the apocryphal Gospels and Infancy Gospels. In this way, we can have an idea of the mutual references that are made between all those works, and of the different usage that they show.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Unity, Power and Energy of the Holy Trinity in the Theology of Gregory of Nyssa 2024-03-01T15:20:56+01:00 Viktor Zhukovskyy <p>The article discusses the problem of the ontological distinction between God’s transcendence and immanence in the theological thought of Gregory of Nyssa, a Church Father of the 4th century. The author presents the main conceptual and terminological apparatuses that Gregory used in his antinomic approach to the complex interpretation of apophatic and kataphatic images of God. He analyzes the main characteristics of these two dimensions of the nature of God. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the Trinitarian approach in answering the question: how can God, who is completely ontologicaly removed from creation, be at the same time actively present in the world and filling it. In this context the author analyzes the key notions, which express the ontological remoteness of the divine essence of the Holy Trinity and God’s active nearness in relation to created being.</p> 2023-12-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Terminology in Ancient and Medieval Time – "Andrachne", "Chrysocolla" and Others 2024-03-01T15:22:35+01:00 Barbara Zipser Andrew C. Scott Robert Allkin Peretz Gan Andreas Lardos Rebecca Lazarou Efraim Lev Mark Nesbitt Kristina Patmore <p>Ancient and medieval pharmacological and medical texts contain a substantial amount of plant and mineral names. In some cases, the identification is straightforward. But for the majority of the data, we are unable to identify these ingredients with high certainty. In this paper, we discuss a selection of plant and mineral names both from a humanities and sciences point of view. In one case, the scientists were even able to examine a plant in situ. The conclusion of our paper is that a close collaboration between sciences and humanities is essential to avoid mistakes in the identification of <em>materia medica</em>.</p> 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Notes on a Reconstruction of the Helm from Lucera 2024-03-01T15:22:39+01:00 Timothy George Dawson 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Patron of the Study of the Bogomils Portrait of Sir Dimitri Obolensky 2024-03-01T15:22:37+01:00 Dick van Niekerk 2023-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023