Travel behaviour in a post-socialist city
Automobile traffic has been recently on the rise in many post-socialist cities despite EU policies fostering public transportation and active modes of travel. Against this background, the contribution of this paper is to look deeper into the travel behaviours of residents using a survey of 887 questionnaires as well as GPS travel recordings (almost 3 billion logs) conducted in the city of Poznań (539,000 inhabitants). Based on our analysis we found that proximity to public transport and cycling infrastructure seem to be among the most important factors influencing travel behaviours of inhabitants. What is more, their accessibility affected also residential locational preferences. However, we also observed that even in neighbourhoods with good accessibility, commuting by car plays a major role.
ADITJANDRA, P. T., CAO, X. J. and MULLEY, C. (2012), ‘Understanding neighbourhood design impact on travel behaviour: An application of structural equations model to a British metropolitan data’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46 (1), pp. 22‒32.
Badania i opracowanie planu transportowego aglomeracji Poznańskiej – I etap, 2013. Available on-line: http://www.plantap.pl/assets/Uploads/Tekst-etap-I.pdf [accessed 12 September 2018].
BARNFIELD, A. and PLYUSHTEVA, A. (2016), ‘Cycling in the post-socialist city: On travelling by bicycle in Sofia, Bulgaria’, Urban Studies, 53 (9), pp. 1822‒1835.
BERG VAN DEN, L., DREWETT, R., KLAASSEN, L. H., ROSSI, A. and VIJVERBERG, C. H. T. (1982), A Study of Growth and Decline. Vol. 1. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
BOARNET, M. G. and SARMIENTO, S. (1998), ‘Can land-use policy really affect travel behaviour? A study of the link between non-work travel and land-use characteristics’, Urban Studies, 35 (7), pp. 1155‒1169.
BOHTE, W., MAAT, K. and VAN WEE, B. (2009), ‘Measuring attitudes in research on residential self‐selection and travel behaviour: a review of theories and empirical research’, Transport reviews, 29 (3), pp. 325‒357.
BORÉN, T. and GENTILE, M. (2007), ‘Metropolitan Processes in Post-Communist States: an Introduction’, Geografiska Annaler, 89B (2), pp. 95–110.
CAO, X. J. and ETTEMA, D. F. (2014), ‘Satisfaction with travel and residential self-selection: How do preferences moderate the impact of the Hiawatha Light Rail Transit line?’ Journal of Transport and Land Use, 7 (3), pp. 93‒108.
DE VOS, J. (2015), ‘The influence of land use and mobility policy on travel behavior: A comparative case study of Flanders and the Netherlands’, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 8 (1), pp. 171‒190.
DE VOS, J. and WITLOX, F. (2016), ‘Do people live in urban neighbourhoods because they do not like to travel? Analysing an alternative residential self-selection hypothesis’, Travel Behaviour and Society, 4, pp. 29‒39.
EVGENIKOS, P., YANNIS, G., FOLLA, K., BAUER, R., MACHATA, K. and BRANDSTAETTER, C. (2016), ‘How safe are cyclists on European roads?’ Transportation Research Procedia, 14, pp. 2372–2381.
GACZEK, W. M., KACZMAREK, M. and MARCINOWICZ, D. (2006), Poznański ośrodek akademicki: próba określenia wpływu studentów na rozwój miasta. Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Poznań.
GADZIŃSKI, J. (2014), ‘The impact of EU policies on the modernization of transport infrastructure in Poznań and other major Polish cities’, [in:] P. CHURSKI, T. STRYJAKIEWICZ (eds.), Poznań – an attempt to assess changes during 10 years of membership in the European Union.Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Poznań.
GADZIŃSKI, J. (2018), ‘Perspectives of the use of smartphones in travel behaviour studies: Findings from a literature review and a pilot study’, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 88, pp. 74‒86.
GADZIŃSKI, J. and RADZIMSKI, A. (2016), ‘The first rapid tram line in Poland: How has it affected travel behaviours, housing choices and satisfaction, and apartment prices?’ Journal of Transport Geography, 54, pp. 451‒463.
GROCHOWSKI, C. and SZYMCZAK, J. (2016), Raport certyfikacji polityki rowerowej BYPAD w Poznaniu. Available at: http://www.poznan.pl/mim/public/rowery/attachments.html?co=-show&instance=1017&parent=81049〈=pl&id=235519 [accessed 12 September 2018].
HANDY, S. (1996), ‘Methodologies for exploring the link between urban form and travel behavior’, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 1 (2), pp. 151‒165.
HIRT, S. (2008), ‘Stuck in the suburbs? Gendered perspectives on living at the edge of the post-communist city’, Cities, 25, pp. 340–354
JÄPPINEN, S., TOIVONEN, T. and SALONEN, M. (2013), ‘Modelling the potential effect of shared bicycles on public transport travel times in Greater Helsinki: An open data approach’, Applied Geography, 43, pp. 13‒24.
KÄHRIK, A., LEETMAA, K. and TAMMARU, T. (2012), ‘Residential decision-making and satisfaction among new suburbanites in the Tallinn urban region, Estonia’, Cities, 29, pp. 49–58.
KIM, T. K., HORNER, M. W. and MARANS, R. W. (2005), ‘Life cycle and environmental factors in selecting residential and job locations’, Housing studies, 20 (3), pp. 457‒473.
KOMORNICKI, T. (2003), ‘Factors of development of car ownership in Poland’, Transport Reviews, 23 (4), pp. 413‒431. KOTUS, J. (2006), ‘Changes in the spatial structure of a large Polish city – The case of Poznan’, Cities, 23 (5), pp. 364–381.
KRISJANE, Z., BERZINS, M., IVLEVS, A. and BAULS, A. (2012), ‘Who are the typical commuters in the post-socialist metropolis? The case of Riga, Latvia’, Cities, 29, pp. 334–340.
KRIZEK, K. J. (2003), ‘Residential relocation and changes in urban travel: Does neighborhood-scale urban form matter?’ Journal of the American Planning Association, 69 (3), pp. 265‒281.
LEETMAA, K. and TAMMARU, T. (2007), ‘Suburbanization in countries in transition: Destinations of suburbanizers in the Tallinn metropolitan area’, Geografiska Annaler, 89B (2), pp. 127–146.
Miasto Poznań, 2008. Program drogowy miasta Poznania na lata 2008–2015. Available at: http://bip.poznan.pl/public/bip/attachments.html?co=show&instance=1001&parent=23486〈=pl&id=51829 [accessed 12 September 2018].
Miasto Poznań, 2017. Program rowerowy miasta Poznania na lata 2017–2022 z perspektywą do roku 2025. Available at: http://bip.poznan.pl/public/bip/attachments.html?co=show&instance=1001&parent=23486〈=pl&id=51827 [accessed 12 September 2018].
NÆSS, P. (2006), Urban structure matters: residential location, car dependence and travel behaviour. London: Routledge.
NIEDZIELSKI, M. and ŚLESZYŃSKI, P. (2008), ‘Analyzing accessibility by transport mode in Warsaw, Poland’, Geographia Polonica, 81 (2), pp. 61‒78.
NOVÁK, J. and SYKORA, L. (2007), ‘A city in motion: Time-space activity and mobility patterns of suburban inhabitants and the structuration of the spatial organization of the Prague metropolitan area’, Geografiska Annaler, 89B (2), pp. 147–167.
OTT, T. (2001), From ‘Concentration to Deconcentration – Migration Patterns in the Post-socialist City’, Cities, 18 (6), pp. 403–412.
OUREDNÍCEK, M. (2007), ‘Differential suburban development in the Prague urban region’, Geografiska Annaler, 89B (2), pp. 111–126.
PINJARI, A. R., ELURU, N., BHAT, C. R., PENDYALA, R. M. and SPISSU, E. (2008), ‘Joint model of choice of residential neighborhood and bicycle ownership: accounting for self-selection and unobserved heterogeneity’, Transportation Research Record, 2082 (1), pp. 17‒26.
POJANI, E., VAN ACKER, V. and POJANI, D. (2018), ‘Cars as a status symbol: Youth attitudes toward sustainable transport in a post-socialist city’, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 58, pp. 210‒227.
PUCHER, J. and BUEHLER, R. (2005), ‘Transport Policy in Post-Communist Europe’, [in:] K. J. BUTTON, D. A. HENSHER (eds.), Handbook of Transport Strategy, Policy and Institutions (Handbooks in Transport, Volume 6), pp. 725–743.
RADZIMSKI, A. (2009), ‘Wpływ budownictwa mieszkaniowego na system komunikacji zbiorowej w Poznaniu’, Autobusy TEST, 10 (3), pp. 14‒17.
SCHÖNFELDER, S. and AXHAUSEN, K. W. (2016), Urban rhythms and travel behaviour: spatial and temporal phenomena of daily travel. London: Routledge.
SCHWANEN, T., DIELEMAN, F. M. and DIJST, M. (2001), ‘Travel behaviour in Dutch monocentric and policentric urban systems’, Journal of Transport Geography, 9 (3), pp. 173‒186.
STANILOV, K. and SÝKORA, L. (eds.) (2014), Confronting Suburbanization. Urban Decentraliztion in Postsocialist Central and Eastern Europe. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
STĘPNIAK, M. and GOLISZEK, S. (2017), ‘Spatio-temporal variation of accessibility by public transport – the equity perspective’, [in:] IVAN I., SINGLETON A., HORÁK J., INSPEKTOR T. (eds), The Rise of Big Spatial Data. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer, Champp, pp. 241‒261.
Studium uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego miasta Poznania, 2014. Available on-line: http://www.mpu.pl/plany.php?s=6&p=294 [accessed 12 September 2018].
VAN ACKER, V., WITLOX, F. and VAN WEE, B. (2007), ‘The effects of the land use system on travel behavior: a structural equation modeling approach’, Transportation planning and technology, 30 (4), pp. 331‒353.
Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa – Użycie niekomercyjne – Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe.