Hominin musical sound production: palaeoecological contexts and self domestication


  • Gary Clark The University of Adelaide, School of Biomedicine, Biological Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Research Unit, Adelaide, Australia image/svg+xml https://orcid.org/0009-0003-2596-7867
  • Arthur Saniotis The University of Adelaide, School of Biomedicine, Biological Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Research Unit, Adelaide, Australia; DDT College of Medicine, Bachelor of Doctor Assistance Department, Gaborone, Botswana
  • Robert Bednarik Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, China, International Centre for Rock Art Dating image/svg+xml https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6388-0725
  • Malin Lindahl Independent Researcher
  • Maciej Henneberg The University of Adelaide, School of Biomedicine, Biological Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Research Unit, Adelaide, Australia; University of Zurich, Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, Zürich, Switzerland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1941-2286




evolution of music, evolution of dance, early hominins, bipedalism, paleoecology, locomotion, archaeology, Ar. ramidus, self-domestication


In this article we seek to integrate theories of music origins and dance with hominin fossil anatomy and the paleoecological contexts of hominin evolution. Based on the association between rhythm in music, dance and locomotion, we propose that early bipedal hominins may have evolved neurobiological substrates different from other great apes due to the rhythmic aspects of bipedal walking and running. Combined with the emancipation of the hands resulting from erect posture, we propose that the neurobiological changes necessary for technological innovation, cultural practices and human musical abilities may have evolved, at least in incipient form, much earlier than previously thought. The consequent ability to synchronize movement and sound production may have also proved beneficial as early bipedal hominins ventured out of late Miocene and early Pliocene woodland and forested habitats and into more open habitats with increased predation risk. We also postulate that, along with bipedalism, paedomorphic morphogenesis of the skull at the base of the hominin clade was a necessary prerequisite for the evolution of vocal modulation and singing in later varieties of hominin. To date research into the evolution of music and dance has yet to be integrated with the fossil and paleoecological evidence of early hominin evolution. This paper seeks to fill this lacuna in the extant literature on human evolution. We also suggest that autocatalytic feedback loops evolving synergistically with hominin erect posture, skull and hand morphology, neurochemical processes and the self-domestication syndrome, have been operative from early hominins some 6 Ma to the present. We document this process by reference to primatological, ethnographic, neurochemical and archaeological data.


Download data is not yet available.


Almécija S, Moyà-Solà S, Alba D. 2010. Early Origin for Human-Like Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins. PLOS ONE 5 (7):e11727. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011727
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011727

Arcadi A, Robert D, Boesch C. 1998. Buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees: Temporal patterning, phrase integration into loud calls, and preliminary evidence for individual distinctiveness. Primates 39 (4):505–518. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02557572
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02557572

Azmitia EC. 1999. Serotonin neurons, neuroplasticity, and homeostasis of neural tissue. Neuropsychopharmacology 21 (2 Suppl):33s–45s. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0893-133X(99)00022-6
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0893-133X(99)00022-6

Badgaiyan RD, Fischman A, Alpert NM. 2007. Striatal dopamine release in sequential learning. Neuroimage 38(3):549–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.07.052
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.07.052

Baldwin PJ, Pí JS, McGrew WC, Tutin CEG. 1981. Comparisons of nests made by different populations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates 22(4):474–486. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381239
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381239

Bednarik RG. 1994. A taphonomy of palaeoart. Antiquity 68:258. Bednarik RG. 2008. Cupules. Rock Art Research (AURA) 25(1):61–100.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00046202

Bednarik RG. 2010a. About lithophones. In: RG Bednarik, editor. Mysterious cup marks: proceedings of the First International Cupule Conference, Oxford: Archaeopress.
View in Google Scholar

Bednarik RG. 2010b. Estimating the age of cupules. Paper read at Mysterious Cup Marks. Proceedings of the First International Cupule Conference. BAR International Series.
View in Google Scholar

Bednarik RG. 2013. Creating the Human Past: An Epistemology of Pleistocene Archaeology: Archaeopress.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1pzk1np

Bednarik RG. 2015. The First Mariners. Bentham Science Publishers.
View in Google Scholar

Bednarik RG. 2017. Palaeoart of the Ice Age. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
View in Google Scholar

Bednarik RG. 2020. The Domestication of Humans. Taylor & Francis.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003021131

Bednarik RG, Saniotis A, Henneberg M. 2022. Auto-domestication hypothesis and the rise in mental disorders in modern humans. Medical Hypotheses 164:110874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2022.110874
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2022.110874

Begun DR. 2018. The Real Planet of the Apes: A New Story of Human Origins: Princeton University Press.
View in Google Scholar

Begun DR, Ward C, Rose M. 1997. Function, Phylogeny and Fossils: Miocene Hominoid Evolution and Adaptations. Springer US.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0075-3

Beliveau V, Ganz M, Feng L, Ozenne B, Højgaard L, Fisher P, Svarer C, Greve DN, Knudsen GM. 2017. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain’s Serotonin System. J Neurosci 37(1):120–128. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2830-16.2016
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2830-16.2017

Bengtsson SL, Ullén F, Ehrsson H, Hashimoto T, Kito T, Naito E, et al. 2009. Listening to rhythms activates motor and premotor cortices. Cortex 45(1)62–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2008.07.002
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2008.07.002

Benítez-Burraco A, Kempe V. 2018. The Emergence of Modern Languages: Has Human Self-Domestication Optimized Language Transmission? Front Psychol 9(551). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00551
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00551

Benítez-Burraco A, Nikolsky A. 2023. The (Co)Evolution of Language and Music Under Human Self-Domestication. Human Nature 34(2)229–275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-023-09447-1
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-023-09447-1

Berger LR, Hawks J, Dirks P, Elliott M, Roberts E. 2017. Homo naledi and Pleistocene hominin evolution in subequatorial Africa eLife 6:e24234 https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24234
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24234

Berger LR, Makhubela T, Molopyane K, Krüger A, Randolph-Quinney P, et. al. 2023. Evidence for deliberate burial of the dead by Homo naledi. eLife 12:RP89106 https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.89106.1
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.89106.1

Berger LR, Hawks J, Fuentes A, van Rooyen D, Tsikoane M, et. al. 2023. 241,000 to 335,000 Years Old Rock Engravings Made by Homo naledi in the Rising Star Cave system, South Africa. eLife 12:RP89102 https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.89102.1
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.89102.1

Berridge KC, Kringelbach ML. 2008. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199(3):457–480.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-008-1099-6

Blake E, Cross I. 2008. Flint Tools as Portable Sound-Producing Objects in the Upper Palaeolithic Context: An Experimental Study.
View in Google Scholar

Blake E, Cross I. 2015. The Acoustic and Auditory Contexts of Human Behavior. Curr Anthropol 56(1)81–103. https://doi.org/10.1086/679445
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/679445

Boesch C. 1991. The Effects of Leopard Predation On Grouping Patterns in Forest Chimpanzees. Behaviour 117:220–241.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156853991X00544

Boesch C. 2009. The Real Chimpanzee: Sex Strategies in the Forest: Cambridge University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511627132

Böhme MN, Spassov J, Fuss A, Tröscher AS, Deane J, Prieto U, Kirscher U, Lechner T, Begun DR. 2019. A new Miocene ape and locomotion in the ancestor of great apes and humans. Nature 575(7783):489–493. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1731-0
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1731-0

Boivin N. 2004. Rock art and rock music: Petroglyphs of the south Indian Neolithic. Antiquity 78:38–53. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00092917
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00092917

Boivin N, Brumm A, Lewis H, Robinson D, Korisettar R. 2007. Sensual, material, and technological understanding: exploring prehistoric soundscapes in south India. JRAI 13:267–294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2007.00428.x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2007.00428.x

Brain CK. 1983. The Hunters Or the Hunted?: An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press.
View in Google Scholar

Brain CK. 1994. The Swartkrans palaeontological research project in perspective: results and conclusions. S Afr J Sci 90(4)220–223. https://doi.org/10.10520/AJA00382353_5380
View in Google Scholar

Brooks J, Kano F, Kawaguchi Y, Yamamoto S. 2022. Oxytocin promotes species-relevant outgroup attention in bonobos and chimpanzees. Horm Behav 143:105182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2022.105182
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2022.105182

Brown S, Martinez M, Parsons LM. 2006. The neural basis of human dance. Cereb Cortex 16(8):1157–1167.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhj057

Brown S. 1999. The “Musilanguage” Model of Music Evolution. In: S Brown, B Merker, C Wallin, editors. The Origins of Music. The MIT Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/5190.003.0022

Brown S. 2001. Are Music and Language Homologues? Ann N Y Acad Sci 930. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05745.x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05745.x

Brown S. 2007. Contagious heterophony: A new theory about the origins of music. Music Sci 11(1):3–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1029864907011001
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/102986490701100101

Brown S. 2017. A Joint Prosodic Origin of Language and Music. Front Psychol 8:1894. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01894
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01894

Brown s. 2022. Group dancing as the evolutionary origin of rhythmic entrainment in humans, New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 64:1–12.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2021.100902

Burkart JM, Fehr E, Efferson C, van Schaik CP. 2007. Other-regarding preferences in a non-human primate: common marmosets provision foodaltruistically. Proc Natl Acad Sci U. S. A. 104:19762–19766. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0710310104
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0710310104

Camarós E, Cueto M, Lorenzo C, Villaverde V, Rivals F. 2016. Large carnivore attacks on hominins during the Pleistocene: a forensic approach with a Neanderthal example. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 8(3):635–646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-015-0248-1
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-015-0248-1

Cerling TE, Levin NE, Quade J, Wynn JG, Fox DL, Kingston JD, et al. 2010. Comment on the Paleoenvironment of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 328(5982):1105–1105. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185274
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185274

Chanda ML, DJ Levitin. 2013. The neurochemistry of music. Trends Cogn Sci
View in Google Scholar

(4):179–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.02.007
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.02.007

Chaney ME, Ruiz CA, Meindl RS, Lovejoy CO. 2022. The foot of the human–chimpanzee last common ancestor was not African apelike: A response to Prang (2019). Journal of Human Evolution 164:102940. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102940
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102940

Chase PG, Nowell A. 1998. Taphonomy of a suggested Middle Paleolithic bone flute from Slovenia. Curr Anthropol 39(4):549–553. https://doi.org/10.1086/204771
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/204771

Cheng L, Samuni L, Lucchesi S, Deschner T, Surbeck M. 2022. Love thy neighbour: behavioural and endocrine correlates of male strategies during intergroup encounters in bonobos. Anim Behav 187:319–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2022.02.014
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2022.02.014

Choi JY, Takahashi DY, Ghazanfar AA. 2015. Cooperative vocal control in marmoset monkeys via vocal feedback. J Neurophysiol 114:274–283. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00228.2015
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00228.2015

Cieri RL, Churchill S, Franciscus R, Tan J, Hare B. 2014. Craniofacial Feminization, Social Tolerance, and the Origins of Behavioral Modernity. Curr Anthropol 55(4):419–443. https://doi.org/10.1086/677209
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/677209

Clark G, Henneberg M. 2015. The life history of Ardipithecus ramidus: A heterochronic model of sexual and social maturation. Anthropol Rev 78(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/anre-2015-0009
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/anre-2015-0009

Clark G, Henneberg M. 2017. Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of language and singing: An early origin for hominin vocal capability. HOMO 68(2):101–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchb.2017.03.001
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchb.2017.03.001

Clark G, Henneberg M. 2021. Interpopulational variation in human brain size: implications for hominin cognitive phylogeny. Anthropol Rev 84(4):405–429. https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2021-0029
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2021-0029

Clark G, Henneberg M. 2021. Cognitive and behavioral modernity in Homo erectus: skull globularity and hominin brain evolution. Anthropol Rev 84:467–485. https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2021-0030
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2021-0030

Conard NJ, Malina M, Münzel S. 2009. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature 460(7256):737–740. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08169
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08169

d’Errico F, Henshilwood C, Lawson G, Vanhaeren M, Tillier A, Soressi M, Bresson F, Maureille B, Nowell A, Lakarra J, Backwell L, Julien M. 2003. Archaeological evidence for the emergence of language, symbolism, and music–an alternative multidisciplinary perspective. J World Prehist 17(1):1–70. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023980201043
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023980201043

d’Errico F, Stringer C. 2011. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366(1567):1060–1069. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0340
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0340

d’Errico F, Villa P. 1997. Holes and grooves: the contribution of microscopy and taphonomy to the problem of art origins. J Hum Evol 33(1):1–31. https://doi.org/10.1006/jhev.1997.0141
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jhev.1997.0141

Dams L. 1984. Preliminary findings at the ‘organ sanctuary’ in the cave of Nerja, Malaga, Spain. Oxf J Archaeol 3(1):1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0092.1984.tb00112.x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0092.1984.tb00112.x

Dams L. 1985. Palaeolithic lithophones: descriptions and comparisons. Oxf J Archaeol 4(1):31–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0092.1985.tb00229.x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0092.1985.tb00229.x

Darwin C. 2004. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Penguin.
View in Google Scholar

Dauvois M. 1989. Son et musique paléolithiques in La musique dans l’Antiquité. Dossiers d’Archéologie (Les) (142):2–11.
View in Google Scholar

Dauvois M. 1999. Mesures acoustiques et témoins sonores osseux paléolithiques. Paper read at Préhistoire d’os (recueil d’études sur l’industrie osseuse préhistorique offert à Henriette Camps-Fabrer).
View in Google Scholar

de Bonis L, Koufos GD, Andrews P. 2001. Hominoid Evolution and Climatic Change in Europe: Volume 2: Phylogeny of the Neogene Hominoid Primates of Eurasia. Cambridge University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511600449

Diniz-Filho J, Jardim L, Mondanaro A, Raia P. 2019. Multiple Components of Phylogenetic Non-stationarity in the Evolution of Brain Size in Fossil Hominins. Evol Biol 46(1):47–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11692-019-09471-z
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11692-019-09471-z

Dissanayake E. 2021. Ancestral human mother–infant interaction was an adaptation that gave rise to music and dance. BBS 44:e68. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X20001144
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X20001144

Eleuteri V, Henderson M, Soldati A, Badihi G, Zuberbühler K, Hobaiter C. 2022. The form and function of chimpanzee buttress drumming. Anim Behav 192:189–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2022.07.013
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2022.07.013

Ettrup A, da Cunha-Bang S, McMahon B, Lehel S, Dyssegaard A, Skibsted A, et al. 2014. Serotonin 2A receptor agonist binding in the human brain with [¹¹C]Cimbi-36. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 34(7):1188–1196. https://doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.68
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.68

Ettrup A, Svarer C, McMahon B, da Cunha-Bang S, Lehel K, Møller S, et al. 2016. Serotonin 2A receptor agonist binding in the human brain with [11C]Cimbi-36: Test-retest reproducibility and head-tohead comparison with the antagonist [18F]altanserin. Neuroimage 130:167–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.02.001
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.02.001

Falk D. 2004. Prelinguistic evolution in early hominins: whence motherese? Behav Brain Sci 27(4):491–503; discussion 503–483. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x04000111
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X04000111

Fazenda B, Scarre C, Till R, Pasalodos RJ, Guerra MR, Tejedor C, Ontañón Peredo R, Watson A, Wyatt S, Benito CG, Drinkall H, Fouldset F. 2017. Cave acoustics in prehistory: Exploring the association of Palaeolithic visual motifs and acoustic response. J Acoust Soc Am 142(3):1332–1349. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4998721
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4998721

Feenders G, Liedvogel M, Rivas M, Zapka M, Horita H, Hara E, et al. 2008. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin. PLoS One 3(3):e1768. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001768
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001768

Fitch T. 2007. Evolving meaning: the roles of kin selection, allomothering and paternal care in language evolution. In: C Lyon, CL Nehaniv, A Cangelosi, editors. Emergence of Communication and Language. Springer: London, 29–51.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84628-779-4_2

Fitch T. 2011. The evolution of syntax: an exaptationist perspective. Front Evol Neurosci 3:9.
View in Google Scholar

Fleagle JG 1998. Primate Adaptation and Evolution: Elsevier Science. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnevo.2011.00009
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnevo.2011.00009

Friberg A, Sundberg J. 1999. Does music performance allude to locomotion? A model of final ritardandi derived from measurements of stopping runners. J Acoust Soc Am 105(3):1469–1484. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.426687
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1121/1.426687

Fuentes A, Kissel M, Spikins P, Molopyane K, Hawks J, Berger LR. 2023. Burials and engravings in a small-brained hominin, Homo naledi, from the late Pleistocene: contexts and evolutionary implications eLife 12:RP89125. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.89125.1
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.89125.1

Geary D, Bailey DH, Oxford J. 2011. Reflections on the Human Family. In: TK Shackelford & C Salmon, editors. The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Family Psychology, Oxford University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195396690.013.0021

Geiringer K. 1982. Instrumente in der Musik des Abendlandes. Munich: Verlag CH Beck. Ghazanfar AA, Takahashi DY. 2014. The evolution of speech: vision, rhythm, cooperation. Trends Cogn Sci 18(10):543–553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.06.004
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.06.004

Glory A. 1964. La Grotte de Roucador. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 61:528–536.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/bspf.1964.8806

Glory A. 1965. Nouvelles découvertes de dessins rupestres sur le Causse de Gramat (Lot). Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française. Études et travaux 62 (Fasc.3):528–538.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/bspf.1965.4049

Goggi J, Pullar I, Carney SL, Bradford HF. 2002. Modulation of neurotransmitter release induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat brain striatal slices in vitro. Brain Res 941(1):34–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02505-2
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(02)02505-2

Gordon I, Zagoory-Sharon O, Leckman JF, Feldman R. 2010. Prolactin, Oxytocin, and the development of paternal behavior across the first six months of fatherhood. Horm Behav 58(3):513–518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.04.007
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.04.007

Gordon CL, Cobb PR, Balasubramaniam R. 2018. Recruitment of the motor system during music listening: An ALE meta-analysis of fMRI data. PLOS ONE 13(11), e0207213. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207213
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207213

Grahn JA, Rowe JB. 2009. Neurosci J 29:7540–7548. Feeling the Beat: Premotor and Striatal Interactions in Musicians and Nonmusicians during Beat Perception. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2018-08.2009
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2018-08.2009

Groenewoud F, Frommen JG, Josi D, Tanaka H, Jungwirth A, Taborsky M. 2016. Predation risk drives social complexity in cooperative breeders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(15):4104–4109. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524178113
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524178113

Hagen EH, Bryant GA. 2003. Music and dance as a coalition signaling system. Hum Nat 14(1):21–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-003-1015-z
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-003-1015-z

Hahn J, Münzel S. 1995. Knochenflöten aus dem Aurignacien des Geißenklösterle bei Blaubeuren. Alb-Donaukreis. Haile-Selassie Y, WoldeGabriel G. 2009. Ardipithecus Kadabba: Late Miocene Evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. University of California Press.
View in Google Scholar

Hamilton WJ. 1982. Baboon sleeping site preferences and relationships to primate grouping patterns. Am J Primatol 3(1–4):41–53. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350030104
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350030104

Hare B. 2017. Survival of the Friendliest: Homo sapiens Evolved via Selection for Prosociality. Annu Rev Psychol 68:155–186. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044201
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044201

Hare B, Wobber V, Wrangham R. 2012. The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression. Anim Beh 83 (3):573–585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.12.007
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.12.007

Harmand S, Lewis JE, Feibel CS, Lepre CJ, Prat S, Lenoble A, et al. 2015. 3.3–millionyear-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature 521(7552):310–315. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14464
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14464

Harrold FB. 1988. The Chatelperronian and the Early Aurignacian in France in The Early Upper Paleolithic. Evidence from Europe and the Near East. BAR. International Series (437):157–191.
View in Google Scholar

Hart D, Sussman RW. 2011. The Influence of Predation on Primate and Early Human Evolution: Impetus for Cooperation. In: RW Sussman, CR Cloninger, editors. Origins of Altruism and Cooperation. New York, NY: Springer New York. 19–40.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9520-9_3

Hart D, Sussman RW. 2019. Man the Hunted: Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution. Taylor & Francis Group.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429499081

Harvey AR. 2020. Links Between the Neurobiology of Oxytocin and Human Musicality. Front hum neurosci 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00350
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00350

Hattori Y, Tomonaga M. 2020. Rhythmic swaying induced by sound in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 117(2):936–942. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910318116
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910318116

Hattori Y, Tomonaga M, Matsuzawa T. 2013. Spontaneous synchronized tapping to an auditory rhythm in a chimpanzee. Sci Rep 3:1566. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep01566
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep01566

Hawkes K, Coxworth JE. 2013. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity: a review of findings and future directions. Evol Anthropol 22(6):294–302. https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.21382
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.21382

Henneberg M, Eckhardt R. 2022. Evolution of modern humans is a result of self-amplifying feedbacks beginning in the Miocene and continuing without interruption until now. Anthropol Rev 85:77–83. https://doi.org/10.18778/1898-6773.85.1.05
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1898-6773.85.1.05

Henneberg M, Saniotis A. 2016. Dynamic Human. Bentham Science Publishers.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/97816810823561160101

Hilton CB, Moser CJ, Bertolo M, Lee-Rubin H, Amir D, Bainbridge CM, et al. 2022. Acoustic regularities in infant-directed speech and song across cultures. Nat Hum Behav 6(11):1545–1556. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01410-x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01410-x

Holloway RL. 1967. Tools and Teeth: Some Speculations regarding Canine Reduction. Am Anthropol 69(1):63–67.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1967.69.1.02a00070

Huyge D. 1990. Mousterian skiffle? Note on a Middle Palaeolithic engraved bone from Schulen, Belgium. Rock Art Research 7:125–132.
View in Google Scholar

Huyge D. 1991. The ‘Venus’ of Laussel in the Light of Ethnomusicology. Archeologie in Vlaanderen.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.55465/ELIQ3185

Hrdy SB. 2009. Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
View in Google Scholar

Hurt CP, Rice RR, McIntosh GC, Thaut MH. 1998. Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation in Gait Training for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. J Music Ther 35(4):228–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/35.4.228
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/35.4.228

Isler K, Van Schaik CP, 2012a. Allomaternal care, life history and brain size evolution in mammals. J Hum Evol 63:52–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2012.03.009
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2012.03.009

Iwamoto T, Mori A, Kawai M, Bekele A. 1996. Anti-predator behavior of gelada baboons. Primates 37(4)389–397. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381374
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381374

Jaubert J, Verheyden S, Genty D, Soulier M, Cheng H, Blamart D, et al. 2016. Early Neanderthal constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France. Nature, 534(7605):111–114. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18291
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18291

Jordania J. 2009. Times to Fight and Times to Relax: Singing and Humming at The Beginnings of Human Evolutionary History. Kadmos, 252–276.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.32859/kadmos/1/252-276

Jordania J. 2014. Tigers, Lions and Humans: History of Rivalry, Conflict, Reverence and Love. Logos. Jordania J. 2020. Distribution of Singing in Arboreal and Terrestrial Species, with Implications for the Origins of Singing Behavior among Humans. Academia Letters. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL18.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.20935/AL18

Kalan AK, Carmignani E, Kronland-Martinet R, Ystad S, Chatron J, Aramaki M. 2019. Chimpanzees use tree species with a resonant timbre for accumulative stone throwing. Biol Lett 15(12):20190747. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2019.0747
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2019.0747

Kimbel WH, Suwa G, Asfaw B, Rak Y, White TD. 2014. Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of the human cranial base. Proc Natl Acad Sci US 111(3):948–53. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322639111
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322639111

Kivell TL, Schmitt D. 2009. Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(34):14241–14246. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0901280106
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0901280106

Klein MO, Battagello DS, Cardoso AR, Hauser DN, Bittencourt JC, Correa RG. 2019. Dopamine: Functions, Signaling, and Association with Neurological Diseases. Cell Mol Neurobiol 39(1):31–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-018-0632-3
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-018-0632-3

Knight C, Lewis J. 2017. Wild Voices: Mimicry, Reversal, Metaphor, and the Emergence of Language. Curr Anthropol 58(4):435–453. https://doi.org/10.1086/692905
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/692905

Kuhn L. Stiner MC. 1998. The Earliest Aurignacian of Riparo Mochi (Liguria, Italy). Curr Anthropol 39(S1):S175–S189. https://doi.org/10.1086/204694
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/204694

Kumar G, Krishna R. 2014. Understanding the technology of the daraki-chattan cupules: The cupule replication project. Rock Art Res 31:177–186.
View in Google Scholar

Kummer H, Hofer HO, Schultz AH, Starck D. 1967. Social Organization of Hamadryas Baboons: A Field Study: S. Karger AG. Laland K, Wilkins C, Clayton N. 2016. The evolution of dance. Curr Biol 26(1):R5–R9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.031
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.031

Lameira AR, Eerola T, Ravignani A. 2019. Coupled whole-body rhythmic entrainment between two chimpanzees. Sci Rep 9(1):18914. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55360-y
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55360-y

Leach H. 2003. Human Domestication Reconsidered. Curr Anthropol 44(3):349–368. https://doi.org/10.1086/368119
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/368119

Lemelin P, Schmitt D. 2016. On Primitiveness, Prehensility, and Opposability of the Primate Hand: The Contributions of Frederic Wood Jones and John Russell Napier. In: TL Kivell, P Lemelin, BG Richmond, D Schmitt, editors. The Evolution of the Primate Hand: Anatomical, Developmental, Functional, and Paleontological Evidence, New York, NY: Springer New York.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3646-5_2

Lewis J. 2009. As well as words: Congo Pygmy hunting, mimicry, and play. In: R Botha, C Knight, editors. The Cradle of Language, Volume 2: African Perspectives. Oxford University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199545858.003.0013

Lieberman P. 2009. Human Language and Our Reptilian Brain: The Subcortical Bases of Speech, Syntax, and Thought. Harvard University Press.
View in Google Scholar

Light KC, Grewen KM, Amico JA. 2005. More frequent partner hugs and higher oxytocin levels are linked to lower blood pressure and heart rate in premenopausal women. Biol Psychol 69(1)5–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.11.002
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.11.002

Lin B, Foxfoot IR, Miller CM, Venkatamaran VV, Kerby JT, Bechtold EK, Kellogg BS, Nguyen N, Fashinget PJ. 2020. Leopard predation on gelada monkeys at Guassa, Ethiopia. Am J Primatol 82(2)e23098. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23098
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23098

Locke JL. 2004. Trickle-up phonetics: A vocal role for the infant. Behav Brain Sci 27(4)516–516. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X04360115
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X04360115

Locke JL, Bogin B. 2006. Language and life history: a new perspective on the development and evolution of human language. Behav Brain Sci 29:259–325. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x0600906x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X0600906X

Lordkipanidze D. 2017. The History of Early Homo. In: M Tibayrenc, FJ Ayala, editors. On Human Nature. San Diego: Academic Press. 45–54.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-420190-3.00003-X

Lordkipanidze D, Vekua A, Ferring R, Rightmire GP, Agusti J, Kiladze G, et al. 2005. Anthropology: The earliest toothless hominin skull. Nature 434(7034):717–718. https://doi.org/10.1038/434717b
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/434717b

Lordkipanidze D, Ponce de Leon MS, Margvelashvili A, Rak Y, Rightmire GP, Vekua A, et al. 2013. A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo. Science 342(6156)326–331. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1238484
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1238484

Lordkipanidze D, Agustí J, Rook L. 2023. Introduction to special issue: The biotic context of the Early Pleistocene hominins from Dmanisi (Georgia, southern Caucasus). J Hum Evol 174:103278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2022.103278
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2022.103278

Lovejoy CO, Latimer B, Suwa G, Asfaw B, White TD. 2009. Combining prehension and propulsion: the foot of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326(5949):72–72e8. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.117583
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175832

Lovejoy CO. 2009. Reexamining Human Origins in Light of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326(5949):74–74,74e1–74e8. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175834
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175834

Lovejoy CO, Simpson SW, White TD, Asfaw B, Suwa G. 2009. Careful climbing in the Miocene: the forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and humans are primitive. Science 326(5949):70e1–8. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175827
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175827

Lundborg G. 2013. The Hand and the Brain: From Lucy’s Thumb to the Thought-Controlled Robotic Hand. Springer London.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5334-4

Marean CW. 1989. Sabertooth cats and their relevance for early hominid diet and evolution. J Hum Evol 18(6)559–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-2484(89)90018-3
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-2484(89)90018-3

Margvelashvili A, Tappen M, Rightmire GP, Tsikaridze N, Lordkipanidze D. 2022. An ancient cranium from Dmanisi: Evidence for interpersonal violence, disease, and possible predation by carnivores on Early Pleistocene Homo. J Hum Evol 166: 103180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2022.103180
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2022.103180

Maringer J. 1982. Musik und Musikinstrumente in vor-und frühgeschichtlicher Zeit. Praehist Z Berlin 57(1):126–137.
View in Google Scholar

Martinowich K, Lu B. 2008. Interaction between BDNF and serotonin: role in mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacol 33(1):73–83. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301571
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301571

McPherron SP, Alemseged Z, Marean CW, Wynn JG, Reed D, Geraads D, Bobe R, Bearat HA. 2010. Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 466(7308):857–860. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09248
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09248

Meindl RS, Chaney ME, Lovejoy CO. 2018. Early hominids may have been weed species. Proc Natl Acad Sci 115(6)1244–1249. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1719669115
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1719669115

Mithen S. 2009. The music instinct: the evolutionary basis of musicality. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1169:3–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04590.x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04590.x

Mongle CS, Strait DS, Grine FE. 2019. Expanded character sampling underscores phylogenetic stability of Ardipithecus ramidus as a basal hominin. J Hum Evol 131:28–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.03.006
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.03.006

Montagu J. 2004. How Old Is Music? The Galpin Society Journal, 57,171–182. Available through JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/25163800 [Accessed 30.05.2024].
View in Google Scholar

Morley I. 2013. The prehistory of music: Human evolution, archaeology, and the origins of musicality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199234080.001.0001

Moscovice LR, Surbeck M, Fruth B, Hohmann G, Jaeggi AV, Deschner T. 2019. The cooperative sex: Sexual interactions among female bonobos are linked to increases in oxytocin, proximity and coalitions. Horm Behav 116:104581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.104581
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.104581

Napier J. 1962. The Evolution of the Hand. Sci Am 207(6):56–65. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1262-56
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1262-56

Napier J. 1993. Hands. Princeton University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400845910

Neubauer S, Hublin J, Gunz P. 2018. The evolution of modern human brain shape. Sci Adv 4(1):eaao5961. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aao5961
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aao5961

Nikolsky A, Benítez-Burraco A. 2022. Human aggression and music evolution: a model. Preprint PsyArXiv 245852812. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/a8up7
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/a8up7

O’Connell JF, Hawkes K, Blurton Jones NG. 1999. Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. J Hum Evol 36(5):461–485. https://doi.org/10.1006/jhev.1998.0285
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jhev.1998.0285

Otte M. 1979. Le paléolithique supérieur ancien en Belgique. Musées royaux d’art et d’histoire.
View in Google Scholar

Panksepp J. 2004. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford University Press.
View in Google Scholar

Panksepp J, Biven L. 2012. The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions. WW Norton.
View in Google Scholar

Panksepp J, Trevarthen C. 2009. The neuroscience of emotion in music. In: S Malloch, C Trevarthen, editors. Communicative musicality: Exploring the basis of human companionship. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198566281.003.0007

Passemard E. 1944. La caverne d’Isturitz en Pays Basque, Préhistoire, t. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
View in Google Scholar

Patel AD. 2021. Vocal learning as a preadaptation for the evolution of human beat perception and synchronization. Philos. Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 376(1835)20200326. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0326
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0326

Pisor AC, Surbeck M. 2019. The evolution of intergroup tolerance in nonhuman primates and humans. Evol Anthropol 28(4)210–223. https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.21793
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.21793

Plavcan JM, van Schaik CP. 1992. Intrasexual competition and canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 87(4):461–477. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330870407
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330870407

Pontzer H, Antón SC, Lordkipanidze D. 2014. Dmanisi Hominins and Archaeology. In: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer Nature 2146–2149.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_711

Prang TC. 2019. The African ape-like foot of Ardipithecus ramidus and its implications for the origin of bipedalism. eLife 8:e44433. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44433
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44433

Prang TC. 2022. New analyses of the Ardipithecus ramidus foot provide additional evidence of its African ape-like affinities: A reply to Chaney et al. (2021). J Hum Evol 164:103135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2021.103135
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2021.103135

Preston SD. 2013. The origins of altruism in offspring care. Psychol bull 139(6):1305. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031755
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031755

Previc F. 1999. Dopamine and the Origins of Human Intelligence. Brain Cogn 41 (3):299–350. https://doi.org/10.1006/brcg.1999.1129
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/brcg.1999.1129

Previc F. 2002. Thyroid hormone production in chimpanzees and humans: Implications for the origins of human intelligence. Am J Phys Anthropol 118(4):402–403. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.10095
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.10095

Previc F. 2009. The Dopaminergic Mind in Human Evolution and History. Cambridge University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511581366

Quam R, Martínez I, Rosa M, Bonmatí A, Lorenzo C, de Ruiter DJ, Moggi-Cecchi J, et al. 2015. Early hominin auditory capacities. Sci Adv 1(8). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500355
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500355

Querejazu LR, Bednarik RG. 2010. Mysterious cup marks: proceedings of the First International Cupule Conference. BAR Publishing.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.30861/9781407306346

Raghanti MA, Edler MK, Stephenson AR, Munger EL, Jacobs B, Hof PR, Sherwood CC, Holloway RL, Lovejoyet CO. 2018. A neurochemical hypothesis for the origin of hominids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 6:115(6):E1108–E1116 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1719666115
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1719666115

Raghanti MA, Stimpson CD, Marcinkiewicz JL, Erwin JM, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. 2008. Cortical dopaminergic innervation among humans, chimpanzees, and macaque monkeys: A comparative study. Neurosci 155(1):203–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.05.008
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.05.008

Raghanti MA, Sherwood CC. 2010. The evolution of cortical neurotransmitter systems among primates and their relevance to cognition. In: MYMD Broadfield, K Schick, NT Gosport, editors. The human brain evolving: paleoneurological studies in honor of Ralph L. Holloway. Stone Age Institute Press.
View in Google Scholar

Raghanti MA, Edler MK, Stephenson AR, Wilson LJ, Hopkins WD, Ely JJ, Erwin JM, Jacobs B, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. 2016. Human-specific increase of dopaminergic innervation in a striatal region associated with speech and language: A comparative analysis of the primate basal ganglia. J Comp Neurol 524(10):2117–2129. https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.23937
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.23937

Raglio AM. 2015. Music Therapy Interventions in Parkinson’s Disease: The State-of-the-Art. Front Neurol 6:185. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2015.00185
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2015.00185

Randall JA. 2015. Evolution and Function of Drumming as Communication in Mammals. Am Zool 4(5):1143–1156. https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/41.5.1143
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/41.5.1143

Reno PL, Lovejoy CO. 2015. From Lucy to Kadanuumuu: balanced analyses of Australopithecus afarensis assemblages confirm only moderate skeletal dimorphism. PeerJ 3:e925. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.925
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.925

Richman B. 1987. Rhythm and melody in gelada vocal exchanges. Primates 28(2)199–223. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02382570
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02382570

Rilling JK, DeMarco AC, Hackett PD, Thompson R, Ditzen B, Patel R, Pagnoni G. 2012. Effects of intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin on cooperative behavior and associated brain activity in men. Psychoneuroendocrinol 37(4):447–461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.07.013
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.07.013

Rose MD. 1993. Locomotor anatomy of Miocene hominoids. In: DL Gebo, editor. Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press. 252–272.
View in Google Scholar

Rosenberg KR, Golinkoff RM, Zosh JM. 2004. Did australopithecines (or early Homo) sling? Behav Brain Sci 27(4),522–522. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X04430118
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X04430118

Salamone JD, Correa M. 2012. The mysterious motivational functions of mesolimbic dopamine. Neuron 76(3):470–485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.021
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.021

Samuni L, Langergraber KE, Surbeck, MH. 2022. Characterization of Pan social systems reveals in-group/out-group distinction and out-group tolerance in bonobos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 119(26)e2201122119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2201122119
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2201122119

Samuni L, Preis A, Mundry R, Deschner T, Crockford C, Wittig RM. 2017. Oxytocin reactivity during intergroup conflict in wild chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114(2)268–273. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616812114
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616812114

Saniotis A, Grantham JP, Kumaratilake J, Henneberg M. 2019. Neuro-hormonal Regulation Is a Better Indicator of Human Cognitive Abilities Than Brain Anatomy: The Need for a New Paradigm. Front Neuroanat 13:101. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2019.00101
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2019.00101

Saniotis A, Grantham JP, Kumaratilake J, Henneberg M, Mohammadi K. 2021. Going beyond brain size: An evolutionary overview of serotonergic regulation in human higher cortical functions. Anthropologie 59. https://doi.org/10.26720/anthro.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.26720/anthro.

Saniotis A, Henneberg M. 2011. An Evolutionary Approach Toward Exploring Altered States of Consciousness, Mind–Body Techniques, and Non-Local Mind. World Futures, 67(3)182–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/02604027.2011.555250
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02604027.2011.555250

Saniotis A, Henneberg A. 2012. Craving for Drugs Is a Consequence of Evolution. Anthropos 107(2):571–578. Available through: JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/23510061. [Accessed 30.05.2024].
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2012-2-571

Saniotis A, Henneberg A. 2013. Evolutionary Medicine and Future of Humanity: Will Evolution Have the Final Word? Hum Res 2:278–291. https://doi.org/10.3390/h2020278
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/h2020278

Sayers K, Raghanti MA, Lovejoy CO. 2012. Human Evolution and the Chimpanzee Referential Doctrine. Ann Rev Anthropol 41(1),119–138. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145815
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145815

Schruth DM, Templeton CN, Holman DJ, Smith EA. 2024. The origins of musicality in the motion of primates. Am J Biol Anthropol 184(1)e24891. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24891
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24891

Senut B. 2006. Arboreal Origin of Bipedalism. In: H Ishida, R Tuttle, M Pickford, N Ogihara, M Nakatsukasa, editors. Human Origins and Environmental Backgrounds. Boston, MA: Springer US.
View in Google Scholar

Senut B. 2015. The Miocene Hominoids and the Earliest Putative HominidsHominids. In: W Henke, I Tattersall, editors. Handbook of Paleoanthropology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2043–2069.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39979-4_49

Shove P, Repp B. 1995. Musical motion and performance: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. In: J Rink, editor. The Practice of Performance: Studies in Musical Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 55–83. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511552366.004
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511552366.004

Soubrié P. 1986. Reconciling the role of central serotonin neurons in human and animal behavior. Behav Brain Sci 9:319–335. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00022871
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00022871

Sorato E, Gullett PR, Griffith SC, Russell AF. 2012. Effects of predation risk on foraging behaviour and group size: adaptations in a social cooperative species. Anim Behav 84(4)823–834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.07.003
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.07.003

Stanner WEH. 2014. On Aboriginal Religion. Sydney University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.30722/sup.9781743323885

Sterelny K. 2012. The Evolved Apprentice. MIT Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262016797.001.0001

Stout D, Hecht E, Khreisheh N, Bradley B, Chaminade T. 2015. Cognitive Demands of Lower Paleolithic Toolmaking. PLOS ONE 10(4):e0121804. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128256
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121804

Strehlow TGH. 1971. Songs of Central Australia. Angus and Robertson.
View in Google Scholar

Suwa G, Asfaw B, Kono RT, Kubo D, Lovejoy CO, White TD. 2009. The Ardipithecus ramidus Skull and Its Implications for Hominid Origins. Science 326(5949):68–68, 68e1–68e7. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175825
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175825

Suwa G, Sasaki T, Semaw S, Rogers MJ, Simpson SW, Kunimatsu Y, et al. 2021. Canine sexual dimorphism in Ardipithecus ramidus was nearly human-like. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 118(49). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2116630118
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2116630118

Thaut M. 2013. Rhythm, Music, and the Brain: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Applications. Taylor & Francis.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203958827

Thaut MH, McIntosh GC, Rice RR. 1997. Rhythmic facilitation of gait training in hemiparetic stroke rehabilitation. J Neurol Sci 151(2)207–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-510x(97)00146-9
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-510X(97)00146-9

Thaut MH, McIntosh KW, McIntosh GC, Hoemberg V. 2001. Auditory rhythmicity enhances movement and speech motor control in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Funct Neurol 16(2)163–172.
View in Google Scholar

Thaut MH, Stephan KM, Wunderlich G, Schicks W, Tellmann L, Herzog H, McIntosh GC, Seitz RJ, Hömberg V. 2009. Distinct cortico-cerebellar activations in rhythmic auditory motor synchronization. Cortex 45(1)44–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2007.09.009
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2007.09.009

Thaut MH, Tian B, Azimi-Sadjadi MR. 1998. Rhythmic finger tapping to cosine-wave modulated metronome sequences: Evidence of subliminal entrainment. Hum Mov Sci 17(6)839–863. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-9457(98)00031-1
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-9457(98)00031-1

Thin N. 1991. High spirits and heteroglossia: forest festivals of the Nilgiri Irulas. Doctoral thesis.
View in Google Scholar

Thomas J, Kirby S. 2018. Self domestication and the evolution of language. Biol Philos 33 (1)9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10539-018-9612-8
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10539-018-9612-8

Tobias PV. 1971. The brain in hominid evolution / Phillip V. Tobias. Smithsonian Institution.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15880

Treves A, Palmqvist P. 2007. Reconstructing Hominin Interactions with Mammalian Carnivores (6.0–1.8 Ma). In: SL Gursky and KAI Nekaris, editors. Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. Boston MA: Springer US.
View in Google Scholar

Tsukahara T. 1993. Lions eat chimpanzees: The first evidence of predation by lions on wild chimpanzees. Am J Primatol 29(1)1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350290102
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350290102

Turk I. 1997. Mousterienska koščena piščal in druge najdbe iz Divjih Bab I v Sloveniji (Mousterian Bone Flute and other finds from Divje babe I Cave site in Slovenia). Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae 2:223.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/9789610503040

Turk I, Dirjec J, Kavur B. 1995. Ali so v Sloveniji našli najstarejše glasbilo v Evropi?: The oldest musical instrument in Europe discovered in Slovenia? Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti.
View in Google Scholar

Turk M, Turk I, Dimkaroski L, Blackwell BAB, Horusitzky FZ, Otte M, Bastiani G, Korat L. 2018. The Mousterian musical instrument from the Divje Babe I Cave (Slovenia): Arguments on the material evidence for Neanderthal musical behaviour. L’anthropologie 122(4):679–706. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anthro.2018.10.001
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anthro.2018.10.001

Tutin CEG, McGrew WC, Baldwin PJ. 1981. Responses of Wild Chimpanzees to Potential Predators. In: AB Chiarelli, RS Corruccini, editors. Primate Behavior and Sociobiology. Proc Life Sci Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68254-4_19
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68254-4_19

Tutin CEG, McGrew WC, Baldwin PJ. 1983. Social organization of savanna-dwelling chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus at Mt. Assirik, Senegal. Primates 24(2)154–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381079
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381079

Vaultier M, Manuel Dos Santos F, Glory A. 1965. La grotte ornée d’Escoural, Portugal. Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 62–1.110–117.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/bspf.1965.4017

Vincent A. 1988. L’os comme artefact au Paléolithique moyen: principes d’étude et premiers résultats. L’homme de Néandertal 4:185–196.
View in Google Scholar

Ward CV. 2013. Postcranial and Locomotor Adaptations of Hominoids. In: W Henke and I Tattersall, editors. Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Vol I:Principles, Methods and Approaches Vol II:Primate Evolution and Human Origins Vol III:Phylogeny of Hominids. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 1–22.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27800-6_34-3

Webb S. 2006. The First Boat People. Cambridge University Press.
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511600524

White TD, Ambrose SH, Suwa G, Su DF, DeGusta D, Bernor RL, et al. 2009. Macrovertebrate paleontology and the Pliocene habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326(5949):87–93. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175822
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175822

White TD, Asfaw B, Beyene Y, Haile-Selassie Y, Lovejoy CO, Suwa G, WoldeGabriel G. 2009. Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids. Science 326 (5949):75–86. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175802
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175802

White TD, Ambrose SH, Suwa G, Wolde-Gabriel G. 2010. Response to Comment on the Paleoenvironment of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 328(5982),1105–1105. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185466
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185466

White TD, Lovejoy CO, Asfaw B, Carlson JP, Suwa G. 2015. Neither chimpanzee nor human, Ardipithecus reveals the surprising ancestry of both. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(16):4877–4884. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1403659111
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1403659111

Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V, Sugiyama Y, Tutin C, Wrangham RW, Boesch C. 1999. Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399(6737):682–685. https://doi.org/10.1038/21415
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/21415

Williams SA, Prang TC, Russo GA, Young NM, Gebo DL. 2023. African apes and the evolutionary history of orthogrady and bipedalism. Am J Biol Anthropol 181(S76)58–80. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24684
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24684

Wilson FR. 1999. The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture. Vintage Books.
View in Google Scholar

Wright E, Grawunder S, Ndayishimiye E, Galbany J, McFarlin SC, Stoinski TS, Robbins MM. 2021. Chest beats as an honest signal of body size in male mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Sci Rep 11(1):6879. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86261-8
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86261-8

Zhou FC, Sari Y, Zhang JK. 2000. Expression of serotonin transporter protein in developing rat brain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 119(1):33–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-3806(99)00152-2
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-3806(99)00152-2

Zuberbühler K, Jenny D, Bshary, R. 1999. The Predator Deterrence Function of Primate Alarm Calls. Ethology 105(6)477–490. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.14390310.1999.00396.x
View in Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0310.1999.00396.x

Zubrow E, Blake E. 2006. The Origins of Music and Rhythm. In: Ch Scarre, Lawson G, editors. Archaeoacoustics. Cambridge: Mc-Donald Institute Publications. 117–126.
View in Google Scholar




How to Cite

Clark, G., Saniotis, A., Bednarik, R., Lindahl, M., & Henneberg, M. (2024). Hominin musical sound production: palaeoecological contexts and self domestication. Anthropological Review, 87(2), 17–61. https://doi.org/10.18778/1898-6773.87.2.02




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 > >> 

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.