Wolny od wartości raj został utracony. Ekonomiści mogli uczyć się od artystów


  • Aleksander Ostapiuk Wroclaw University of Economics and Business, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Department of Ecological Economics



Słowa kluczowe:

philosophy of science, methodology of economics, value-free economics, Max Weber


Despite the conclusions from the contemporary philosophy of science, many economists cherish the ideal of positive science. Therefore, value-free economics is still the central paradigm in economics. The first aim of the paper is to investigate economics’ axiomatic assumptions from an epistemological perspective. The critical analysis of the literature shows that the positive-normative dichotomy is exaggerated. Moreover, value-free economics is based on normative foundations that have a negative impact on individuals and society. The paper’s second aim is to show that economics’ normativity is not a problem because the discussion concerning values is possible and unavoidable. In this context, Weber and other methodologists are investigated. The conclusion of the paper is that science can thrive without strict methodological rules thanks to institutional mechanisms. Therefore, economists could learn from artists who accept the world without absolute rules. This perspective opens the possibility for methodological pluralism and normative approaches.


Ainslie, G. (1975). Specious reward: A behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. Psychological Bulletin, 82(4), 463–496. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/h0076860
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076860

Akerlof, G. (2020). Sins of Omission and the Practice of Economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 58(2), 405–418.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.20191573

Angner, E. (2019). We’re all behavioral economists now. Journal of Economic Methodology, 26(3), 195–207.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1350178X.2019.1625210

Backhouse, R. E. & Cherrier, B. (2017). The age of the applied economist: the transformation of economics since the 1970s. History of Political Economy, 49, 1–33.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/00182702-4166239

Barnes, J. (Ed.). (1984). The complete works of Aristotle Vol. 2. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Google Scholar

Becker, G. S. (1976). The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226217062.001.0001

Berg, N., & Gigerenzer, G. (2010). As-if behavioral economics: Neoclassical economics in disguise? History of Economic Ideas, 18(1), 133–165.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1677168

Blaug, M. (1992). The Methodology of Economics: Or How Economists Explain (2nd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511528224

Blaug, M. (1997). Ugly Currents in Modern Economics. Options Politiques, 18(17), 3–8.
Google Scholar

Boland, L. A. (1979). A critique of Friedman’s critics. Journal of Economic Literature, 17(2), 503–522.
Google Scholar

Boldyrev, I. & Svetlova, E. (Eds.) (2016). Enacting Dismal Science: New Perspectives on the Performativity of Economics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-48876-3

Brickman, P., Coates, D. & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winner and accident victims: is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(8), 917–927. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.8.917
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.8.917

Brzeziński, M., Gorynia, M. & Hockuba, Z. (2008). Ekonomia a inne nauki społeczne na początku XXI w. Między imperializmem a kooperacją. Ekonomista, 2, 201–232.
Google Scholar

Caldwell, B. J. (1992). A Critique of Friedman’s Methodological Instrumentalism: A Modification. Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology, 10, 119–128.
Google Scholar

Callon, M. (2006). What does it mean to say that economics is performative? CSI Working Papers Series, no. 005, Centre de Sociologie de l’Innovation (CSI), Mines ParisTech.
Google Scholar

Cedrini, M. & Fontana, M. (2018). Just another niche in the wall? How specialization is changing the face of mainstream economics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 42(2), 427–451. https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bex003
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bex003

Colander, D. (2000). The death of neoclassical economics. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 22(2), 127–143. https://doi.org/10.1080/104277100 50025330
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10427710050025330

Colander, D., Holt, R. & Rosser, J. (2004). The Changing Face of Mainstream Economics. Review of Political Economy, 16(4), 485–499. https://doi.org/10.1080/0953825042000256702
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0953825042000256702

Davis, J. B. (2006). The Turn in Economics: Neoclassical Dominance to Mainstream Pluralism. Journal of Institutional Economics, 2(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744137405000263
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744137405000263

Dow, S. C. (2012). Foundations for new economic thinking: A collection of essays. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137000729

Dun, F. Van (1986). Economics and the Limits of Value-Free Science. Reason Papers, 11, 17–32.
Google Scholar

Feyerabend, P. (1993). Against method (3rd ed). New York–London: Verso.
Google Scholar

Fiedor, B. & Ostapiuk, A. (2017). Utylitaryzm versus aksjologiczne i społeczne uwarunkowania wyborów ekonomicznych. In: E. Mączyńska, & J. Sójka (Eds.), Etyka i ekonomia. W stronę nowego paradygmatu (pp. 19–44). Warszawa: Polskie Towarzystwo Ekonomiczne.
Google Scholar

Fourcade, M., Ollion, E. & Algan, Y. (2015). The superiority of economists. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(1), 89–114.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.29.1.89

Friedman, M. (1953). Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Google Scholar

Graupe, S. (2019). “Waging the war of ideas”: Economics as a textbook science and its possible influence on human minds. In: S. Decker, W. Elsner & S. Flechtner (Eds.), Advancing pluralism in teaching economics (pp. 173–191). London: Routledge.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315177809-12

Hands, D. W. (2001). Reflection Without Rules: Economic Methodology and Contemporary Science Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612602

Hands, D. W. (2007). Effective tension in Robbins’s economic methodology. In: F. Cowell and A. Witztum (Eds.), Lionel Robbins’ essay on the nature and significance of economic science. 75th anniversary conference proceedings (pp. 152–168). London: London School of Economics and Political Science.
Google Scholar

Hands, D. W. (2012). The positive-normative dichotomy and economics. In: U. Mäki (Ed.), Philosophy of economics (pp. 219–239). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-51676-3.50009-9

Hardt, Ł. (2020). Utylitaryzm, deontologia i etyka cnót: zbieżne czy przeciwstawne fundamenty etyczne ekonomii? Ekonomista, 2, 249–265.
Google Scholar

Hausman, D. M. (1992). The Inexact and Separate Science of Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752032

Hausman, D. M. (1998). Problems with realism in economics. Economics & Philosophy, 14(2), 185–213. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266267100003837
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266267100003837

Hausman, D. M. & McPherson, M. S. (2006). Economic Analysis, Moral Philosophy and Public Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511754289

Hempel, C. G. (1945). Studies in the Logic of Confirmation (I.). Mind, 54(213), 1–26.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/mind/LIV.213.1

Hoyningen-Huene, P. (2017). Revisiting Friedman’s F53. Popper, Knight, and Weber. http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/12910/1/Friedmans%20F53.pdf
Google Scholar

Hutchison, T. W. (1981). The Politics and Philosophy of Economics. New York: New York University Press.
Google Scholar

Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–292. https://doi.org/10.2307/1914185
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1914185

Keynes, J. N. (1999). The scope and method of political economy. Kitchener, Ontario: Batoche Books.
Google Scholar

Klamer, A., McCloskey, D. N. & Solow, R. M. (Eds.). (1988). The consequences of economic rhetoric. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511759284

Klappholz, K. (1964). Value Judgments and Economics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 15(58), 97–114.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/XV.58.97

Klimczak, B. (2014). Aksjologiczne uwikłanie ekonomii. Annales. Etyka w Życiu Gospodarczym, 17(1), 9–21.
Google Scholar

Kuhn, T. S. (1977). Objectivity, Value Judgment, and Theory Choice. In: T. S. Kuhn, The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change (pp. 320–339). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Google Scholar

Kuhn, T. S. (1996). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (3rd ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226458106.001.0001

Lakatos, I. (1980). The methodology of scientific research programmes. Philosophical Papers, Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar

Lawson, T. (2015). Essays on: The Nature and State of Modern Economics. Abingdon: Routledge.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315724416

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Economic imperialism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(1), 99–146. https://doi.org/10.1162/003355300554683
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/003355300554683

Madra, Y. M. (2016). Late Neoclassical Economics: The restoration of theoretical humanism in contemporary economic theory. New York: Routledge.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315817255

Mäki, U. (1995). Diagnosing McCloskey. Journal of Economic Literature, 33(3), 1300–1318.
Google Scholar

Mäki, U. (2009). Unrealistic assumptions and unnecessary confusions: Rereading and rewriting F53 as a realist statement. In: U. Mäki (Ed.), The methodology of positive economics. Reflections on the Milton Friedman legacy (pp. 90–116). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511581427.005

Mäki, U. (2012). Realism and antirealism about economics. In: U. Mäki (Ed.), Philosophy of economics (pp. 3–24). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-51676-3.50001-4

McCloskey, D. N. (1983). The rhetoric of economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 21(2), 481–517.
Google Scholar

McCloskey, D. N. (1994). Knowledge and Persuasion in Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599347

Megill, A. (1985). Prophets of Extremity: Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucault, Derrida. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520908376

Merton, R. K. (1942). A note on science and democracy. Journal of Legal and Political Sociology, 1, 115–126.
Google Scholar

Miller, D. (1974). Popper’s Qualitative Theory of Verisimilitude. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 25(2), 166–177.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/25.2.166

Mirowski, P. (2002). Machine dreams: Economics becomes a cyborg science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613364

Mongin, P. (2001). Value Judgments and Value Neutrality in Economics: A Perspective from Today. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
Google Scholar

Morgan, M. (2012). The world in the model: How economists work and think. Cambridge–New York: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139026185

Myrdal, G. (1970). Objectivity in Social Research. London: Gerald Duckworth.
Google Scholar

Nagel, E. (1961). The Structure of Science. Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Google Scholar

Nietzsche, F. (1954). On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense. In: W. Kaufmann (Ed. & Transl.), The Portable Nietzsche. New York: Penguin Books.
Google Scholar

Ostapiuk, A. (2017). Matematyzacja ekonomii – grzech pierworodny? Wieloaspektowa analiza wpływu i przyczyn. Ekonomia XXI wieku, 13(1), 91–104.
Google Scholar

Ostapiuk, A. (2019a). Droga ekonomii wolnej od wartościowania do epistemologicznej pychy. Użycie i nadużycie matematyki przez ekonomistów. Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce, 67, 153–202.
Google Scholar

Ostapiuk, A. (2019b). Human Now versus Human over Time. When Instrumental Rationality and Utility Are Not Enough. Panoeconomicus, 66(5), 633–657.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/PAN161203026O

Ostapiuk, A. (2020). The Eclipse of Value-Free Economics. The concept of multiple self versus homo economicus. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu.
Google Scholar

Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: The decline of violence in history and its causes. New York: Penguin Group.
Google Scholar

Poincaré, H. (2010). Science and method (F. Maitland, transl.). New York: Cosimo Classics.
Google Scholar

Polanyi, M. (1958). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Google Scholar

Popper, K. (1959). The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Basic Books.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3060577

Putnam, H. (2002). The Collapse of the Fact/Value Dichotomy and Other Essays. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Google Scholar

Quine, W. V. (1951). Main trends in recent philosophy: Two dogmas of empiricism. The Philosophical Review, 60(1), 20–43.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2181906

Ratajczak, M. (2014). Ekonomia i edukacja ekonomiczna w dobie finansyzacji gospodarki. Ekonomista, 2, 207–219.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/rpeis.2014.76.2.19

Reiss, J. (2013). Philosophy of economics: A contemporary introduction. Abingdon: Routledge.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203559062

Reiss, J. (2017). Fact-value entanglement in positive economics. Journal of Economic Methodology, 24(2), 134–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350178X.2017.1309749
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1350178X.2017.1309749

Robbins, L. (1932). An essay on the nature & significance of economic science. London: Macmillan.
Google Scholar

Rodrik, D. (2015). Economics rules: The rights and wrongs of the dismal science. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.17323/1726-3247-2015-4-39-59

Samuelson, P. (1952). Economic Theory and Mathematics – an Appraisal. American Economic Review, 42(2), 56–66.
Google Scholar

Schweitzer, A. (1970). Typological Method in Economics: Max Weber’s Contribution. History of Political Economy, 2(1), 66–96.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/00182702-2-1-66

Sen, A. K. (1970). Collective Choices and Social Welfare. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.
Google Scholar

Sen, A. K. (1987). On Ethics & Economics. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Google Scholar

Sen, A. K. (1993). Internal Consistency of Choice. Econometrica, 61(3), 495–521.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2951715

Thaler, R. H. (1980). Toward a Positive Theory of Consumer Choice. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1(1), 39–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2681(80)90051-7
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2681(80)90051-7

Thaler, R. H. (2015). Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Google Scholar

Thaler, R. H. (2016). Behavioral economics: Past, present, and future. American Economic Review, 106(7), 1577–1600.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.106.7.1577

Weber, M. (1949). The methodology of the social sciences (E. Shils & H. Finch, transl.). Glencoe: The Free Press.
Google Scholar

Weintraub, E. R. (2002). How economics became a mathematical science. Durham–London: Duke University Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv125jtwm

Witztum, A. (2007). Ethics and the science of economics: Robbins’s enduring fallacy. In: F. Cowell and A. Witztum (Eds.), Lionel Robbins’ essay on the nature and significance of economic science. 75th anniversary conference proceedings (pp. 57–85). London: School of Economics and Political Science.
Google Scholar

Wolin, S. S. (1981). Max Weber: Legitimation, Method, and the Politics of Theory. Political Theory, 9(3), 401–424.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009059178100900308



Jak cytować

Ostapiuk, A. (2020). Wolny od wartości raj został utracony. Ekonomiści mogli uczyć się od artystów. Annales. Etyka W Życiu Gospodarczym, 23(4), 7–33. https://doi.org/10.18778/1899-2226.23.4.01