The Slovenian planning system 30 years later: Lessons learnt and lessons not learnt

Authors

  • Naja Marot University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Landscape Architecture, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5534-7592

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.28.2.04

Keywords:

spatial planning system, planning law, Europeanisation, Slovenia, territorial governance

Abstract

After gaining independence, countries such as Slovenia put a lot of effort into adapting their legislations to new market conditions. While concentrating on legislation, they often dismissed several other factors which influence policy and decision making. Among them, a particularly important role is played by the Europeanisation of planning, and the turn towards a higher flexibility of processes and land uses as opposed to the predetermination via zoning. While shedding light on these issues, this paper reflects on the incremental evolution of the Slovenian spatial planning system from the approval of the first Spatial Planning Act in 2003 towards a territorial governance approach characterised by a mix of regulatory processes and plans.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

ARNSTEIN, S. R. (1969), ‘A Ladder of Citizen Participation’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35 (4), pp. 216–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225

BALDWIN, R. and BLACK, J. (2008), ‘Really Responsive Regulation’, The Modern Law Review, 71 (1), pp. 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2230.2008.00681.x
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2230.2008.00681.x

BERISHA, E., COTELLA, G., JANIN RIVOLIN, U. and SOLLY, A. (2021), ‘Spatial governance and planning systems in the public control of spatial development: a European typology’, European Planning Studies, 29 (1), pp. 181−200. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2020.1726295
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2020.1726295

BLACK, J. (2002), ‘Regulatory Conversations’, Journal of Law and Society, 29 (1), pp. 163–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6478.00215
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6478.00215

BUITELAAR, E., GALLE, M. and SOREL, N. (2011), ‘Plan-led planning systems in development-led practices: An empirical analysis into the (lack of) institutionalization of planning law’, Environment and Planning A, 43 (4), pp. 928−941. https://doi.org/10.1068/a43400
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1068/a43400

COTELLA, G. (2020), ‘How Europe hits home? The impact of European Union policies on territorial governance and spatial planning’, Géocarrefour, 94 (3). https://doi.org/10.4000/geocarrefour.15648
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/geocarrefour.15648

COTELLA, G. and RIVOLIN, U. J. (2011), ‘Europeanization of spatial planning through discourse and practice in Italy’, disP - The Planning Review, 47 (186), pp. 42–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/02513625.2011.10557143
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02513625.2011.10557143

COTELLA, G. and STEAD, D. (2011), ‘Spatial planning and the influence of domestic actors: Some conclusions’, disP - The Planning Review, 47 (186), pp. 77–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/02513625.2011.10557146
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02513625.2011.10557146

DEKLEVA, J. (1999), ‘Instruments of spatial development regulation’, [in:] DROZG, V. (ed.), The key instruments of urban and spatial planning at the start of the new millennium: the state of art and the trend (SI: Ključni vzvodi urbanističnega in prostorskega planiranja na prelomu tisočletja: stanje in trendi). Book of abstracts. 15. Sedlarjevo srečanje, Maribor, 21.–23. Ljubljana, Town and Spatial Planning Association of Slovenia, pp. 27–38.
Google Scholar

DÜHR, S. and NADIN, V. (2007), ‘Europeanization through transnational territorial cooperation? The case of INTERREG IIIB North-West Europe’, Planning, Practice & Research, 22 (3), pp. 373−394. https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701666738
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701666738

DUHR, S., STEAD, D. and ZONNEVELD, W. (eds.) (2007), ‘The Europeanization of Spatial Planning Through Territorial Cooperation’, Planning Practice & Research, 22 (3), pp. 291–471. https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701688245
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701688245

FALUDI, A. (2014), ‘EUropeanisation or Europeanisation of spatial planning?’ Planning Theory & Practice, 15 (2), pp. 155–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2014.902095
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2014.902095

FENKO, A. B. and LOVEC, M. (2015), ‘From a Good to a Poor Student: The De-Europeanisation of Slovenian Foreign Policy in the Light of (European) Economic and Financial Crisis’, Études helléniques/Hellenic Studies, 23 (1), pp. 111–140.
Google Scholar

FINK-HAFNER, D. and DEŽELAN, T. (2014), ‘The political science professional project in Slovenia: from communist monism, democratisation and Europeanisation to the financial crisis’, Društvena istraživanja, 23 (1), pp. 133–153. https://doi.org/10.5559/di.23.1.07
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.5559/di.23.1.07

FINK-HAFNER, D., HAFNER-FINK, M. and NOVAK, M. (2015), ‘Europeanisation as a factor of national interest group political-cultural change: The case of interest groups in Slovenia’, East European Politics and Societies, 29 (1), pp. 287–305. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325414535625
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325414535625

GAJŠEK, M. (2018), ‘Prostorsko planiranje med državnim intervencionizmom in prostim trgom. Spatial planning in-between state interventionism and the free market’, [in:] ZAVODNIK LAMOVŠEK, A. (ed.), Prostorski načrtovalci 21. stoletja: 60 let KPP, 45 let IPŠPUP. Ljubljana: UL FGG – Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo Univerze v Ljubljani, pp. 39–45.
Google Scholar

GEDDES, A., LEES, C. and TAYLOR, A. (2013), The European Union and South East Europe: the dynamics of Europeanization and multilevel governance, London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203112267
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203112267

GOLOBIČ, M., MAROT, N., COF, A., BANTAN, M., HUDOKLIN, J. and HOČEVAR, I. (2014), SPRS2030 – Analysis of the implementation of the Strategy of the Spatial Development Strategy of Slovenia. Ljubljana, Biotehniška fakulteta, Novo Mesto: ACER.
Google Scholar

GUALINI, E. (2003), ‘Challenges to multi-level governance: contradictions and conflicts in the Europeanization of Italian regional policy’, Journal of European Public Policy, 10 (4), 616–636. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350176032000101280
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1350176032000101280

Informal meeting of Ministers responsible for Spatial Planning and Territorial Development and/or Territorial Cohesion (2020), Territorial Agenda 2030. https://www.territorialagenda.eu/files/agenda_theme/agenda_data/Territorial%20Agenda%20documents/TerritorialAgenda2030_201201.pdf [accessed on: 13.01.2021].
Google Scholar

KAJFEŽ-BOGATAJ, L., ČREPINŠEK, Z., ZALAR, M., GOLOBIČ, M., MAROT, N. and LESTAN, K. A. (2014), Groundworks for the evaluation of the risks and opportunities climate changes bring to Slovenia: final report, Ljubljana: Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, p. 149.
Google Scholar

KAJNČ, S. (2011), ‘The europeanisation of Slovenian foreign policy: from accession to presidency of the council of the EU’, Teorija in Praksa, 48 (3), pp. 668−687.
Google Scholar

KLEMENČIČ, M. (2013), ‘The effects of Europeanisation on institutional diversification in the Western Balkans’, The globalisation challenge for European Higher Education: Convergence and diversity, centres and peripherie, Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, pp. 117–138.
Google Scholar

KOMAR, O. and NOVAK, M. (2020), ‘Introduction: (De) democratisation in Slovenia and Montenegro: Comparing the Quality of Democracy’, Politics in Central Europe, 16 (3), pp. 569−592. https://doi.org/10.2478/pce-2020-0026
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pce-2020-0026

LADRECH, R. (1994), ‘Europeanization of domestic politics and institutions: The case of France’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 32, pp. 69–88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1994.tb00485.x
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1994.tb00485.x

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT (2007), Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 94, pp. 12729–12746.
Google Scholar

LUHMANN, N. (2008), Law as a social system, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 498.
Google Scholar

LUUKKONEN, J. (2011), ‘Europeanization of spatial planning. Exploring the spatialities of European integration’, Nordia Geographical Publications, 40 (3), pp. 1–59.
Google Scholar

MAIER, K. (2012), ‘Europeanization and changing planning in East-Central Europe: An Easterner’s view’, Planning Practice & Research, 27, pp. 137–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/02697459.2012.661596
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02697459.2012.661596

MANSFELDOVÁ, Z. (2011), ‘Central European parliaments over two decades–diminishing stability? Parliaments in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia’, The Journal of Legislative Studies, 17 (2), pp. 128–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/13572334.2011.574023
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13572334.2011.574023

MAROT, N. (2010), An Assessment of the role of spatial planning legislation in the Slovenian spatial planning system, Doctoral thesis. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, p. 312.
Google Scholar

MAROT, N. (2011), ‘Upravljavska sposobnost slovenskih občin na področju prostorskega načrtovanja’, Acta geographica Slovenica, 50, (1), pp. 131−157. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS50106
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS50106

MAROT, N. (2014), Resilience: a word non-existing, yet sufficiently integrated into planning, Spa-ce.net conference, Bratislava.
Google Scholar

MAROT, N. (2018), ‘Evropeizacija slovenskega prostorskega načrtovanja - deset let prizadevanj in izkušenj = Europeanisation of Slovenian spatial planning - ten years of efforts and experiences’, [in:] ZAVODNIK LAMOVŠEK, A. (ed.), Prostorski načrtovalci 21. stoletja: 60 let KPP, 45 let IPŠPUP. Ljubljana: UL FGG - Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo Univerze v Ljubljani, pp. 46–53.
Google Scholar

MAROT, N. (2021), ‘Slovenia: [Countries subject to the Mediterranean ICZM Protocol]’, [in:] ALTERMAN, R. and PELLACH, C. (eds.), Regulating coastal zones: international perspectives on land-management instruments, (Urban planning and environment), New York: Routledge, pp. 220–236. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429432699-11
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429432699-11

MAROT, N., KLEPEJ, D., OGRAJENŠEK, I., PERVIZ, L., URŠIČ, M. and HORVAT, U. (2020), Urban tourism and COVID-19; Report of the activity 3.5, WP3, Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana; Maribor: University of Maribor, p. 54.
Google Scholar

MAROT, N., KOLARIČ, Š. and GOLOBIČ, M. (2013), ‘Slovenia as the natural Park of Europe? Territorial impact assessment in the case of Natura 2000’, Acta geographica Slovenica, 53 (1), pp. 91–116. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS53105
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS53105

MAROT, N., PENKO SEIDL, N., KOSTANJŠEK, B. and HARFST, J. (2019), Study on the green infrastructure and ecological connectivity governance in the EUSALP area: Action group 7: To develop ecological connectivity in the whole EUSALP territory, Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, p. 87.
Google Scholar

MCAUSLAN, P. (1980), The ideologies of planning law, Oxford: Pergamon Press, p. 282.
Google Scholar

MIHELIČ, B., HUMAR, M., NIKŠIČ, M. et al. (2015), Urbanistični terminološki slovar, Ljubljana: Urbanistični inštitut Republike Slovenije, ZRC SAZU. https://doi.org/10.3986/978-961-254-943-5
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/978-961-254-943-5

MIKULEC, B. (2017), ‘Impact of the Europeanisation of education: Qualifications frameworks in Europe’, European Educational Research Journal, 16 (4), pp. 455–473. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904116673645
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904116673645

MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND SPATIAL PLANNING (2004), Strategy of the Spatial Development of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning.
Google Scholar

MÜNTER, A. and REIMER, M. (2020), ‘Planning Systems on the Move? Persistence and Change of the German Planning System’, Planning Practice & Research, pp. 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02697459.2020.1832362
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02697459.2020.1832362

NEEDHAM, B. (2007), ‘Final comment: Land-use planning and the law’, Planning Theory, 6 (2), pp. 183–189. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095207077588
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095207077588

PETERLIN, M. and MCKENZIE, J. K. (2007), ‘The Europeanization of spatial planning in Slovenia’, Planning, Practice & Research, 22 (3), pp. 455–461. https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701666811
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450701666811

POGAČNIK, A. (2005), ‘Prispevek k integraciji prostorskega, socialnega, gospodarskega in okoljskega načrtovanja’, Dela, 24, pp. 49–59. https://doi.org/10.4312/dela.24.49-59
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4312/dela.24.4.49-59

PURKARTHOFER, E. (2016), ‘When soft planning and hard planning meet: Conceptualising the encounter of European, national and sub-national planning’, European Journal of Spatial Development, 61, pp. 1–20.
Google Scholar

RAAGMAA, G. and STEAD, D. (2014), ‘Spatial Planning in the Baltic States: Impacts of European Policies’, European Planning Studies, 22 (4), pp. 671–679. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2013.772730
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2013.772730

SPATIAL PLANNING ACT (2003), Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 110, pp. 13057–13083.
Google Scholar

SPATIAL PLANNING ACT (2007), Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 33, pp. 4585–4602.
Google Scholar

SPATIAL PLANNING ACT (2017), Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 61, pp. 8254–8310.
Google Scholar

ŠOBOT, A. and LUKŠIČ, A. (2020), ‘Natura 2000 Experiences in Southeast Europe: Comparisons from Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Journal of Comparative Politics, 13 (1), pp. 46–57.
Google Scholar

TULUMELLO, S., COTELLA, G. and OTHENGRAFEN, F. (2020), ‘Spatial planning and territorial governance in Southern Europe between economic crisis and austerity policies’, International Planning Studies, 25 (1), pp. 72–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2019.1701422
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2019.1701422

VAN DIJK, T. and BEUNEN, R. (2009), ‘Laws, people and land use: A sociological perspective on the relation between laws and land use’, European Planning Studies, 17 (12), pp. 1797–1815. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654310903322314
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09654310903322314

WEBER, M. (1964), Max Weber, the theory of social and economic organization, New York: Free Press, p. 436.
Google Scholar

Downloads

Published

2021-12-30

How to Cite

Marot, N. (2021). The Slovenian planning system 30 years later: Lessons learnt and lessons not learnt. European Spatial Research and Policy, 28(2), 63–81. https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.28.2.04

Issue

Section

Articles