Urban regeneration and urban resilience planning through connectivity: the importance of this principle of new urbanism

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.29.1.06

Keywords:

Lodz, New Urbanism, resilience, urban regeneration

Abstract

Urban regeneration, which is increasingly having to include methods of adapting urban areas to escalating climate change, is one of the main challenges for the contemporary development of European cities, especially in densely built-up central areas. This multi-level process requires major financial outlays, which is why it is so important to identify the factors that ensure the effectiveness of implemented projects. This article attempts to define the meaning of the New Urbanism principle of connectivity, ensuring freedom of movement in the urban regeneration process. The conducted research has been intended to verify the hypothesis that improving connectivity is critical for the success of the processes of regenerating and improving resilience in degraded urban fabric. The research was conducted using the area regeneration of the centre of Lodz as an example, being the largest project of this type in Poland. The analyses were made by comparing the current status, based on an inventory of the existing situation, and the planned status on the basis of design documentation. The research demonstrates that increasing connectivity will improve the accessibility of properties located within municipal quarters and will help obtain more attractive public spaces. The planned activities will also help bolster climate change in the location by increasing green areas, improving the use of wasteland, and by developing a network of green infrastructure. The execution of the revitalisation project in the centre of Lodz will not only improve the quality of space, but will also increase the resilience of the intensively urbanised inner-city areas to climate change.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

AGHAABBASI, M., MOEINADDINI, M., ASADI-SHEKARI, Z. and ZALY SHAH, M. (2019), ‘The equitable use concept in sidewalk design’, Cities, 88, pp. 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2018.10.010
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2018.10.010

ALFONZO, M. A. (2005), ‘To Walk or Not to Walk? The Hierarchy of Walking Needs’, Environment and Behavior, 37 (6), pp. 808–836. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916504274016
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916504274016

BERN, B. and MARSHALL, W. E. (2013), ‘Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian Treatments at Large Arterial Intersections & Comparison with Lane-Equivalent, Small Intersection Gridded Networks’, ASCE Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 139 (4), pp. 241–249.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000156

BOCAREJO, J. P. (2012), ‘Transport accessibility and social inequities: A tool for identification of mobility needs and evaluation of transport investments’, Journal of Transport Geography, 24, pp. 142–154.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.12.004

BOHL, C. C. (2000), ‘New Urbanism and the city: Potential applications and implications for distressed inner-city neighbourhoods’, Housing Policy Debate, 11 (4), pp. 761–801. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2000.9521387
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2000.9521387

CALTHORPE, P. (1993), The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
Google Scholar

CARPIO-PINEDO, J., BENITO-MORENO, M. and LAMÍQUIZ-DAUDÉN, P. J. (2021), ‘Beyond land use mix, walkable trips. An approach based on parcel-level land use data and network analysis’, Journal of Maps, 17 (1), pp. 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2021.1875063
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2021.1875063

CARPIO-PINEDO, J., DE GREGORIO HURTADO, S. and SÁNCHEZ DE MADARIAGA, I. (2019), ‘Gender mainstreaming in urban planning: the potential of Geographic Information Systems and open data sources’, Planning Theory & Practice, 20 (2), pp. 221–240. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2019.1598567
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2019.1598567

CERVERO, R. and GORHAM, R. (1995), ‘Commuting in transit versus automobile neighbourhoods’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 61 (2), pp. 210–225.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01944369508975634

Cities of the future, challenges, visions, perspectives, European Union Regional Policy, 2011.
Google Scholar

Climate change adaptation plan for the city of Lodz, Lodz, UMŁ (2018), https://uml.lodz.pl/ekoportal/eko-wiedza/miasto/miejski-plan-adaptacji-do-zmian-klimatu/ [accessed on: 30.09.2020].
Google Scholar

CNU – Congress of the New Urbanism (2000), Charter of the New Urbanism, http://www.cnu.org [accessed on: 23.01.2018].
Google Scholar

CYSEK-PAWLAK, M. M. and KRZYSZTOFIK, S. (2018), ‘The New Urbanism principle of quality architecture and urban design versus place identity. A case study of Val d’Europe and the Manufaktura complex’, European Spatial Research and Policy, 25 (2), pp. 99–115. https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.25.2.06
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.25.2.06

CYSEK-PAWLAK, M. M. and PABICH, M. (2020), ‘Walkability – the New Urbanism principle for urban regeneration’, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2020.1834435
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2020.1834435

DESOUZA, K. C. and FLANERY, T. H. (2013), ‘Designing, planning, and managing resilient cities: A conceptual framework’, Cities, 35, p. 89.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2013.06.003

DIXON, J. and DUPUIS, A. (2003), ‘Urban Intensification in Auckland, New Zealand: A Challenge for New Urbanism’, Housing Studies, 18 (3), pp. 353–368. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673030304239
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02673030304239

DROBNIAK, A. (2014), Urban resilience concept and post-industrial cities in Europe, Katowice.
Google Scholar

DUANY, A. and PLATER‐ZYBERK, E. (1992), ‘The second coming of the American small town’, Wilson Quarterly, 16.
Google Scholar

DUANY, A. and PLATER‐ZYBERK, E. (1994), ‘The neighbourhood, the district and the quarter’, [in:] KATZ, R. (ed.) The New Urbanism, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Google Scholar

DUTTON, J. A. (2000), New American urbanism: reforming the suburban metropolis, Milano: Skira Architecture Library.
Google Scholar

DWORNICZAK, Ł. and REDA, P. (2019), Standardy kształtowania zieleni w Łodzi (Green shaping standards in Łódź), Order No. 8378/VIII/21 of the mayor of Łódź, dated 24 September 2021 on shaping, maintaining and protecting the green areas of Łódź.
Google Scholar

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2021), Forging a climate resilient Europe – The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM/2021/82 final). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM%3A2021%3A82%3AFIN
Google Scholar

EUROPEAN COMMISSION & EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY (2022), Climate – ADAPT strategy 2022–2024. Sharing knowledge for a climate-resilient Europe, https://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/about/climate-adapt-strategy-2022-2024-final.pdf
Google Scholar

EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY (2016), Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe 2016: Transforming cities in a changing climate (EEA Report No. 12/2016). https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/urban-adaptation-2016
Google Scholar

GIRLING, C., ZHENG, K., MONTI, A. and EBNESHAHIDI, M. (2019), ‘Walkability vs. walking: assessing outcomes of walkability at Southeast False Creek, Vancouver, Canada’, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 8 (2), pp. 456–475.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2019.1626269

GUGIK – Główny Urząd Geodezji i Kartografii – The Head Officeof Geodesy and Cartography, https://mapy.geoportal.gov.pl/imap/Imgp_2.html [accessed on: 07.12.2020].
Google Scholar

GUS – Główny Urząd Statystyczny – Statistics Poland, Local Data Bank, https://bdl.stat.gov.pl/BDL/start [accessed on: 25.11.2020].
Google Scholar

HANDY, S., PATERSON, R. and BUTLER, K. (2003), ‘Planning for Street Connectivity: Getting from Here to There’, Planning Advisory Service, Report 515, American Planning Association.
Google Scholar

HANZL, M., TOFILUK, A., ZINOWIEC-CIEPLIK, K., GROCHULSKA-SALAK, M. and NOWAK, A. (2021), ‘The Role of Vegetation in Climate Adaptability: Case Studies of Lodz and Warsaw’, Urban Planning 6 (4), pp. 9–24. https://doi.org/10.17645/up.v6i4.3931
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.17645/up.v6i4.3931

HIGGS, G., FRY, R. and LANGFORD, M. (2012), ‘Investigating the Implications of Using Alternative GIS-Based Techniques to Measure Accessibility to Green Space’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 39 (2), pp. 326–343. https://doi.org/10.1068/b37130
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1068/b37130

HUDSON, R., (2010), ‘Resilient regions in an uncertain world: wishful thinking or a practical reality?’, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3 (1), pp. 11–25.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsp026

JACKSON, A. (2018), ‘Barriers to Integrating New Urbanism in Mixed-Income Housing Plans in Chicago: Developer, Housing Official, and Consultant Perspectives’, Housing Policy Debate, 28 (5), pp. 695–726. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2018.1433703
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2018.1433703

JOH, K., BOARNET, M. G., NGUYEN, M. T., FULTON, W., SIEMBAB, W. and WEAVER, S. (2008), ‘Accessibility, travel behavior, and new urbanism: Case study of mixed-use centers and auto-oriented corridors in the South Bay region of Los Angeles, California’, Transportation research record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2082, pp. 81–89.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2082-10

KACZMAREK, S., (2001), Rewitalizacja terenów poprzemysłowych. Nowy wymiar w rozwoju miast, Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, p. 9.
Google Scholar

KATZ, R.(1994), The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community, New York: McGraw Hill.
Google Scholar

KHATTAK, A. J. and RODRIGUEZ, D. (2005), ‘Travel behavior in neo-traditional neighborhood developments: A case study in USA’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 39 (6), pp. 481–500.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2005.02.009

KNAAP, G.-J., SONG, Y., EWING, R. and CLIFTON, K. (2005), ‘Seeing the Elephant: Multi-Disciplinary Measures of Urban Sprawl’, Urban Studies and Planning Program, University of Maryland.
Google Scholar

KNIGHT, P. L. and MARSHALL, W. E. (2015), ‘The metrics of street network connectivity: their inconsistencies’, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 8 (3), pp. 241–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2014.909515
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2014.909515

LA ROSA, D. (2014), ‘Accessibility to greenspaces: GIS based indicators for sustainable planning in a dense urban context’, Ecological Indicators. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.11.011
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.11.011

LEVINE, J. (1998), ‘Rethinking accessibility and jobs-housing balance’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 64 (2), pp. 133–149.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01944369808975972

LITMAN, T.(2012), Evaluating accessibility for transportation planning, Victoria, Canada: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
Google Scholar

Lodz City Centre Urban Regeneration Programme. On-line portal. https://rewitalizacja.uml.lodz.pl/ [accessed on: 27.11.2020].
Google Scholar

ŁOG – Łódzki Ośrodek Geodezji – Lodz Geodesy Centre. http://mapa.lodz.pl/index.php?strona=prof WMS and WFS service [accessed on: 25.11.2020].
Google Scholar

MAJEWSKA, A. and DENIS, M. (2020), ‘New directions of small city development – case study of Mszczonów’, Space and Form, Przestrzeń i Forma, 43, pp. 215–228. https://doi.org/10.21005/pif.2020.43.C-07
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.21005/pif.2020.43.C-07

MARSHALL, S.(2005), Streets & Patterns, New York: Spon Press.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203589397

MARSHALL, W. and GARRICK, N. (2010), ‘The Effect of Street Network Design on Walking and Biking’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2198, pp. 103–115. https://doi.org/10.3141/2198-12
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2198-12

MEEROW, S., NEWELL, J.P. and STULTS, M., (2016), ‘Defining urban resilience: A review’, Landscape and Urban Planing, 147, p. 39.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.11.011

MILLWARD, H., SPINNEY, J. and SCOTT, D. (2013), ‘Active-transport walking behavior: destinations, durations, distances’, Journal of Transport Geography, 28, pp. 101–110.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.11.012

MOORE, S. and TRUDEAU, D. (2020), ‘New Urbanism: From Exception to Norm – The Evolution of a Global Movement’, Urban Planning, 5 (4), pp. 384–387.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.17645/up.v5i4.3910

MOSELEY, D., MARZANO, M., CHETCUTI, J. and WATTS, K. (2013), ‘Green networks for people: Application of a functional approach to support the planning and management of greenspace’, Landscape and Urban Planning, 116, pp. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.04.004
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.04.004

MPU – Miejska Pracownia Urbanistyczna w Łodzi – Municipal Urban Planning Studio in Lodz. Local zoning plans, https://mpu.lodz.pl/opracowania/plany-miejscowe [accessed on: 21.10.2020].
Google Scholar

NASAR, J. L. (2003), ‘Does neotraditional development build community?’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 23 (1), pp. 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X03256224
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X03256224

PEPONIS, J., ALLEN, D., HAYNIE, D., SCOPPA, M. and ZHANG, Z. (2007), Measuring the Configuration of Street Networks: the Spatial Profiles of 118 Urban Areas in the 12 Most Populated Metropolitan Regions in the U.S. 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey.
Google Scholar

Plan to adapt the City of Lodz to climate change, Lodz: UMŁ [online], https://uml.lodz.pl/ekoportal/eko-wiedza/miasto/miejski-plan-adaptacji-do-zmian-klimatu/ [accessed on: 30.09.2020].
Google Scholar

Poland’s Strategic Adaptation Plan for Climate Vulnerable Sectors and Areas to 2020, with an outlook to 2030 (2013).
Google Scholar

PREISNER, W. F. (2007), Integrating the seven principles of universal design into planning practice. Universal design and visitability: from accessibility to zoning, Columbus, Ohio, USA: The John Glenn School of Public Affairs, pp. 11–30.
Google Scholar

Resolution No. XXV/589/16 of Lodz City Council of 10 February 2016 on indicating degraded zone and regeneration zone in Lodz (2016).
Google Scholar

Revitalisation Act of 9 October 2015 (2015).
Google Scholar

SONG, Y. and KNAAP, G.-J. (2004), ‘Measuring the effects of mixed land uses on housing values’, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 34 (6), pp. 663–680.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2004.02.003

SOUTHWORTH, M. and BEN-JOSEPH, E. (1997), Street and the Shaping of Towns and Cities, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Google Scholar

STRAATEMEIER, T. and BERTOLINI, L. (2020), ‘How can planning for accessibility lead to more integrated transport and land-use strategies? Two examples from the Netherlands’, European Planning Studies, 28 (9), pp. 1713–1734. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2019.1612326
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2019.1612326

STRYJAKIEWICZ, T., KUDŁAK, R., CIESIÓŁKA, P., KOŁSUT, B. and MOTEK, P. (2018), ‘Urban regeneration in Poland’s non-core regions’, European Planning Studies, 26 (2), pp. 316–341. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2017.1361603
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2017.1361603

TALEN, E. (2000), ‘New Urbanism and the culture of criticism’, Urban Geography, 21 (4), pp. 318–341. https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.21.4.318
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.21.4.318

TALEN, E. (2002), ‘Pedestrian Access as a Measure of Urban Quality’, Planning Practice & Research, 17 (3), pp. 257–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/026974502200005634
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/026974502200005634

TALEN, E.(2019), A Research Agenda for New Urbanism, Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, USA: Edward, Elgar.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788118637

United Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (2017), Trends in Urban Resilience. ISBN: 978-92-1-132743-4.
Google Scholar

WARZYWODA-KRUSZYŃSKA, W. and JANKOWSKI, B. (2013), Ciągłość i zmiana w enklawach biedy, Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.
Google Scholar

YANG, Y. and DIEZ-ROUX, A. V. (2012), ‘Walking Distance by Trip Purpose and Population Subgroups’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43 (1), pp. 11–19.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.03.015

ZIM – Zarząd Inwestycji Miejskich w Łodzi – Municipal Board of Investment in Lodz. Plans of examined investments [accessed on: 5–13.11.2020].
Google Scholar

Downloads

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Cysek-Pawlak, M., Krzysztofik, S., & Makowski, A. . (2022). Urban regeneration and urban resilience planning through connectivity: the importance of this principle of new urbanism . European Spatial Research and Policy, 29(1), 111–133. https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.29.1.06

Issue

Section

Articles