2020 parliamentary elections in Georgia: Results and geographical peculiarities


  • Revaz Gachechiladze Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Department of Human Geography, 0179 Tbilisi, 1, Ilia Chavchavadze avenue, Georgia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6867-8289
  • Giorgi Gogsadze Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Department of Human Geography, 0179 Tbilisi, 1, Ilia Chavchavadze avenue, Georgia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0618-5299




Georgia, parliamentary elections, voter turnout, voting, election districts


The article aims to show the main political-geographic trends of the 2020 parliamentary elections in Georgia. The political systems of the post-Soviet counties are still imperfect and fragile. Although international observers recognised the vote results in Georgia as legitimate, many opposition parties boycotted the parliament for almost six months. It took several western officials to engage in regulating the post-election crisis. The work focuses on analysing turnout and voting patterns pointing to the changes that occurred in the last decade. A geographical study of elections enables one to identify the merits and drawbacks of the electoral process from the regional standpoint. The findings of the work underline the complexity of the election outcomes. While certain legal and political changes bring Georgia closer to European democracies, the country still lags in terms of several electoral/geographical features. 


Download data is not yet available.


BELL, J. (2001), The political economy of reform in post-communist Poland, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: E. Elgar.
Google Scholar

BLAIS, A. (2006), ‘What Affect Voter Turnout?’ Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci., 9, pp. 111–25. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.070204.105121
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.070204.105121

BLAIS, A. and DOBRZYNSKA, A. (1998), ‘Turnout in electoral democracies’, European Journal of Political Research, 33 (2), pp. 239–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00382
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00382

BLAIS, A. and RUBENSON, D. (2013), ‘The Source of Turnout Decline: New Values or New Contexts?’, Comparative Political Studies, 46 (1), pp. 95–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414012453032
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414012453032

COMSA, M. (2017), ‘Explaining Turnout Decline in Post-Communist Countries: The Impact of Migration’, Studia UBB Sociologia, 62 (LXII), 2, pp. 29–60. https://doi.org/10.1515/subbs-2017-0010
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/subbs-2017-0010

CORSO, M. (2013), Georgia: Low Turnout Overshadows Presidential Election. https://eurasianet.org/georgia-low-turnout-overshadows-presidential-election
Google Scholar

CZESNIK, M. (2006), ‘Voter Turnout and Democratic Legitimacy in Central Eastern Europe’, Polish Sociological Review, 4, pp. 449–470.
Google Scholar

Diverging Exit Polls Give Lead to GD (2020). http://civil.ge/archives/379162
Google Scholar

DOWNS, A. (1957), An Economic Theory of Democracy, New York: Harper and Row.
Google Scholar

Election Administration of Georgia (2021), About us: Election Administration of Georgia. https://www.cesko.ge/eng/static/1521/vin-vart-chven
Google Scholar

Final Report: OSCE – ODIHR (2021), Limited Election Observation Mission. Georgia Parliamentary Elections, 31 October 2020. Warsaw, May 5, 2021. https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/georgia/467364
Google Scholar

Georgian Election Data: 2008a. Parliamentary – Party List. https://data.electionsportal.ge/en/event_type/3/event/3/shape/30695/shape_type/1?data_type=official
Google Scholar

Georgian Election Data (2008), Presidential. https://data.electionsportal.ge/en
Google Scholar

Georgia Election Watch Report on October 31, 2020 Parliamentary Elections (2020), National Democratic Institute. https://civil.ge/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/NDI-Georgia-VEAT-Statement-Nov-2-2020-ENG.pdf
Google Scholar

GEYS, B. (2006), ‘Explaining voter turnout: A review of aggregate-level research’, Electoral Studies, 25 (4), pp. 637–663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2005.09.002
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2005.09.002

GROFMAN, B. et al. (1999), ‘Rethinking the Partisan Effects of Higher Turnout: So What’s the Question?’, Public Choice, 99 (3/4), pp. 357–376. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018397327176
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018397327176

INGLEHART, R. and CATTERBERG, G. (2002), ‘Trends in Political Action: The Developmental Trend and the Post-Honeymoon Decline’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 43 (3–5), pp. 300–316. https://doi.org/10.1177/002071520204300305
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002071520204300305

IRI polls: 33% would vote for ruling Georgian Dream, 16% for opposition party UNM (2020). Agenda.ge, 12 Aug 2020. https://agenda.ge/en/news/2020/2526
Google Scholar

JOHNSTON, R., MATTHEWS, S. J. and BITTNER, A. (2007), ‘Turnout and the Party System in Canada, 1988–2004’, Electoral Studies, 26 (4), pp. 735–745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2007.08.002
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2007.08.002

JORDAN, J. (2017), ‘The Effect of Electoral Competitiveness on Voter Turnout’, WWU Honors Program Senior Projects, 43. https://cedar.wwu.edu/wwu_honors/43
Google Scholar

KOSTADINOVA, T. (2003), ‘Voter Turnout Dynamics in Post-Communist Europe’, European Journal of Political Research, 42 (6), pp. 741–759. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00102
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00102

KOSTELKA, F. (2017), ‘Distant souls: post-communist emigration and voter turnout’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43 (7), pp. 1061–1063. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1227696
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1227696

KOVALCSIK, T. and NZIMANDE, N. (2019), ‘Theories of the voting behaviour in the context of electoral and urban geography’, Belvedere Meridionale, 31 (4), pp. 207–220. https://doi.org/10.14232/belv.2019.4.15
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.14232/belv.2019.4.15

MATSUBAYASHI, T. and WU, J. D. (2012), ‘Distributive Politics and Voter Turnout’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 22 (2), pp. 167–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2012.666555
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2012.666555

Net Migration Dynamics (2021), National Statistics Office of Georgia. https://www.geostat.ge/en/modules/categories/322/migration
Google Scholar

PACEK, A., POP-ELECHES, G. and TUCKER, J. (2009), ‘Disenchanted or Discerning: Voter Turnout in Post-Communist Countries’, The Journal of Politics, 71 (2), pp. 473–491. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381609090409
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381609090409

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (2021). Progress of the Assembly’s monitoring procedure (January-December 2020) [Doc. 15211].
Google Scholar

Parliamentary Election Interim Report: IRI (2020). Technical Election Assessment Mission: Georgia. https://www.iri.org/sites/default/files/iri_georgia_team_interim_report.pdf
Google Scholar

Population and Demography (2020). National Statistics Office of Georgia. https://www.geostat.ge/en/modules/categories/316/population-and-demography
Google Scholar

POWER, T. J. (2009), ‘Compulsory for Whom? Mandatory Voting and Electoral Participation in Brazil, 1986–2006’, Journal of Politics in Latin America, 1 (1), pp. 97–122. https://doi.org/10.1177/1866802X0900100105
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1866802X0900100105

Public Attitudes in Georgia (2020). Results of December 2020 telephone survey carried out for NDI by CRRC Georgia during 17–24 December, 2020. National Democratic Institute, Tbilisi, pp. 1–65.
Google Scholar

Public Opinion Survey (2019). International Republican Institute – Center for Insights in Survey Research.file:///C:/Users/User/Documents/Elections/2020%20Parliament/IRI%20-20georgia _poll_ 11.18.2019 _final.pdf
Google Scholar

REDŽIĆ, E. and EVERETT, J. (2020), ‘Cleavages in the PostCommunist Countries of Europe: A Review’, Politics in Central Europe, 16 (1), pp. 231–258. https://doi.org/10.2478/pce-2020-0011
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pce-2020-0011

REIF, K. and SCHMITT, H. (1980), ‘Nine Second-order National Elections: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Election Results’, European Journal of Political Research, 8 (1), pp. 3–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1980.tb00737.x
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1980.tb00737.x

Report (2012), The Central Election Administration. The Elections of the Parliament of Georgia 2012. https://cesko.ge/res/old/other/13/13973.pdf
Google Scholar

Results (2016), The Central Election Administration. October 8, 2016 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://archiveresults.cec.gov.ge/results/20161008/index.html
Google Scholar

Results (2020), The Central Election Administration. October 31, 2020 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://results.cec.gov.ge/#/en-us
Google Scholar

RIKER, W. H. and ORDESHOOK, P.C. (1968), ‘A theory of the calculus of voting’, American Political Science Review, 62 (1), pp. 25–42. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000305540011562X
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1953324

Saakashvili Declared Winner of Georgia’s Presidential Election (2004), https://www.voanews.com/archive/saakashvili-declared-winner-georgias-presidential-election-2004-01-15
Google Scholar

Saakashvili: Nagorno-Karabakh Sovereign Territory of Azerbaijan (2020), Georgia Today, http://georgiatoday.ge/news/22518/Saakashvili%3A-Nagorno-Karabakh-Sovereign-Territory-of-Azerbaijan
Google Scholar

SOLIJONOV, A. (2016), Voter Turnout Trends around the World, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/voter-turnout-trends-around-the-world.pdf
Google Scholar

STOCKEMER, D. (2017), ‘What Affects Voter Turnout?’, Government and Opposition, 52 (4), pp. 698–722. https://doi.org/10.1017 /gov.2016.30
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2016.30

Summarizing Protocol (2008), The Central Election Commission of Georgia, Parliamentary Elections May 21, 2008. https://cesko.ge/res/old/other/8/8722.pdf
Google Scholar

Summarizing Protocol (2012), The Central Election Commission of Georgia, Parliamentary Elections. https://cesko.ge
Google Scholar

The Parliament of Georgia: Parliamentary Elections 1990, 28 October. http://www.parliament.ge/ge/
Google Scholar

TULLOCK, G. (1967), Towards a Mathematics of Politics, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Google Scholar

VAISHNAW, M. and GUY, J. (2018), Is Higher Turnout Bad for Incumbents, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. https://carnegieendowment.org/2018/05/07/is-higher-turnout-bad-for-incumbents -pub-76238
Google Scholar

Voter Turnout (2008), The Election Administration of Georgia, May 21, 2008 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/ge/archevnebi/2008/parlamentis-archevnebi-19-ge (in Georgian)
Google Scholar

Voter Turnout (2012), The Election Administration of Georgia, October 1, 2012 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/ge/archevnebi/2012/parlamentis-archevnebi-2012-136-ge/aqtivoba-2012 (in Georgian)
Google Scholar

Voter Turnout (2016), The Election Administration of Georgia, October 8, 2016 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/en/archevnebi/2016/saqartvelos-parlamentis-archevnebi-2016/amomrchevelta-aqtivoba
Google Scholar

Voter Turnout (2020), The Election Administration of Georgia, October 31, 2020 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/en/archevnebi/2020/october-31-2020-parliamentary-elections-of-georgia/aqtivoba
Google Scholar




How to Cite

Gachechiladze, R., & Gogsadze, G. (2021). 2020 parliamentary elections in Georgia: Results and geographical peculiarities. European Spatial Research and Policy, 28(2), 211–226. https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.28.2.12