2020 parliamentary elections in Georgia: Results and geographical peculiarities
Keywords:Georgia, parliamentary elections, voter turnout, voting, election districts
The article aims to show the main political-geographic trends of the 2020 parliamentary elections in Georgia. The political systems of the post-Soviet counties are still imperfect and fragile. Although international observers recognised the vote results in Georgia as legitimate, many opposition parties boycotted the parliament for almost six months. It took several western officials to engage in regulating the post-election crisis. The work focuses on analysing turnout and voting patterns pointing to the changes that occurred in the last decade. A geographical study of elections enables one to identify the merits and drawbacks of the electoral process from the regional standpoint. The findings of the work underline the complexity of the election outcomes. While certain legal and political changes bring Georgia closer to European democracies, the country still lags in terms of several electoral/geographical features.
BELL, J. (2001), The political economy of reform in post-communist Poland, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: E. Elgar.
BLAIS, A. (2006), ‘What Affect Voter Turnout?’ Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci., 9, pp. 111–25. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.070204.105121
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.070204.105121
BLAIS, A. and DOBRZYNSKA, A. (1998), ‘Turnout in electoral democracies’, European Journal of Political Research, 33 (2), pp. 239–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00382
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00382
BLAIS, A. and RUBENSON, D. (2013), ‘The Source of Turnout Decline: New Values or New Contexts?’, Comparative Political Studies, 46 (1), pp. 95–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414012453032
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414012453032
COMSA, M. (2017), ‘Explaining Turnout Decline in Post-Communist Countries: The Impact of Migration’, Studia UBB Sociologia, 62 (LXII), 2, pp. 29–60. https://doi.org/10.1515/subbs-2017-0010
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/subbs-2017-0010
CORSO, M. (2013), Georgia: Low Turnout Overshadows Presidential Election. https://eurasianet.org/georgia-low-turnout-overshadows-presidential-election
CZESNIK, M. (2006), ‘Voter Turnout and Democratic Legitimacy in Central Eastern Europe’, Polish Sociological Review, 4, pp. 449–470.
DOWNS, A. (1957), An Economic Theory of Democracy, New York: Harper and Row.
Election Administration of Georgia (2021), About us: Election Administration of Georgia. https://www.cesko.ge/eng/static/1521/vin-vart-chven
Final Report: OSCE – ODIHR (2021), Limited Election Observation Mission. Georgia Parliamentary Elections, 31 October 2020. Warsaw, May 5, 2021. https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/georgia/467364
Georgian Election Data: 2008a. Parliamentary – Party List. https://data.electionsportal.ge/en/event_type/3/event/3/shape/30695/shape_type/1?data_type=official
Georgia Election Watch Report on October 31, 2020 Parliamentary Elections (2020), National Democratic Institute. https://civil.ge/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/NDI-Georgia-VEAT-Statement-Nov-2-2020-ENG.pdf
GEYS, B. (2006), ‘Explaining voter turnout: A review of aggregate-level research’, Electoral Studies, 25 (4), pp. 637–663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2005.09.002
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2005.09.002
GROFMAN, B. et al. (1999), ‘Rethinking the Partisan Effects of Higher Turnout: So What’s the Question?’, Public Choice, 99 (3/4), pp. 357–376. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018397327176
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018397327176
INGLEHART, R. and CATTERBERG, G. (2002), ‘Trends in Political Action: The Developmental Trend and the Post-Honeymoon Decline’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 43 (3–5), pp. 300–316. https://doi.org/10.1177/002071520204300305
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002071520204300305
JOHNSTON, R., MATTHEWS, S. J. and BITTNER, A. (2007), ‘Turnout and the Party System in Canada, 1988–2004’, Electoral Studies, 26 (4), pp. 735–745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2007.08.002
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2007.08.002
KOSTADINOVA, T. (2003), ‘Voter Turnout Dynamics in Post-Communist Europe’, European Journal of Political Research, 42 (6), pp. 741–759. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00102
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00102
KOSTELKA, F. (2017), ‘Distant souls: post-communist emigration and voter turnout’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43 (7), pp. 1061–1063. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1227696
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1227696
KOVALCSIK, T. and NZIMANDE, N. (2019), ‘Theories of the voting behaviour in the context of electoral and urban geography’, Belvedere Meridionale, 31 (4), pp. 207–220. https://doi.org/10.14232/belv.2019.4.15
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.14232/belv.2019.4.15
MATSUBAYASHI, T. and WU, J. D. (2012), ‘Distributive Politics and Voter Turnout’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 22 (2), pp. 167–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2012.666555
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2012.666555
Net Migration Dynamics (2021), National Statistics Office of Georgia. https://www.geostat.ge/en/modules/categories/322/migration
PACEK, A., POP-ELECHES, G. and TUCKER, J. (2009), ‘Disenchanted or Discerning: Voter Turnout in Post-Communist Countries’, The Journal of Politics, 71 (2), pp. 473–491. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381609090409
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381609090409
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (2021). Progress of the Assembly’s monitoring procedure (January-December 2020) [Doc. 15211].
Parliamentary Election Interim Report: IRI (2020). Technical Election Assessment Mission: Georgia. https://www.iri.org/sites/default/files/iri_georgia_team_interim_report.pdf
Population and Demography (2020). National Statistics Office of Georgia. https://www.geostat.ge/en/modules/categories/316/population-and-demography
POWER, T. J. (2009), ‘Compulsory for Whom? Mandatory Voting and Electoral Participation in Brazil, 1986–2006’, Journal of Politics in Latin America, 1 (1), pp. 97–122. https://doi.org/10.1177/1866802X0900100105
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1866802X0900100105
Public Attitudes in Georgia (2020). Results of December 2020 telephone survey carried out for NDI by CRRC Georgia during 17–24 December, 2020. National Democratic Institute, Tbilisi, pp. 1–65.
Public Opinion Survey (2019). International Republican Institute – Center for Insights in Survey Research.file:///C:/Users/User/Documents/Elections/2020%20Parliament/IRI%20-20georgia _poll_ 11.18.2019 _final.pdf
REDŽIĆ, E. and EVERETT, J. (2020), ‘Cleavages in the PostCommunist Countries of Europe: A Review’, Politics in Central Europe, 16 (1), pp. 231–258. https://doi.org/10.2478/pce-2020-0011
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pce-2020-0011
REIF, K. and SCHMITT, H. (1980), ‘Nine Second-order National Elections: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Election Results’, European Journal of Political Research, 8 (1), pp. 3–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1980.tb00737.x
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1980.tb00737.x
Results (2016), The Central Election Administration. October 8, 2016 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://archiveresults.cec.gov.ge/results/20161008/index.html
RIKER, W. H. and ORDESHOOK, P.C. (1968), ‘A theory of the calculus of voting’, American Political Science Review, 62 (1), pp. 25–42. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000305540011562X
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1953324
Saakashvili Declared Winner of Georgia’s Presidential Election (2004), https://www.voanews.com/archive/saakashvili-declared-winner-georgias-presidential-election-2004-01-15
Saakashvili: Nagorno-Karabakh Sovereign Territory of Azerbaijan (2020), Georgia Today, http://georgiatoday.ge/news/22518/Saakashvili%3A-Nagorno-Karabakh-Sovereign-Territory-of-Azerbaijan
SOLIJONOV, A. (2016), Voter Turnout Trends around the World, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/voter-turnout-trends-around-the-world.pdf
TULLOCK, G. (1967), Towards a Mathematics of Politics, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
VAISHNAW, M. and GUY, J. (2018), Is Higher Turnout Bad for Incumbents, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. https://carnegieendowment.org/2018/05/07/is-higher-turnout-bad-for-incumbents -pub-76238
Voter Turnout (2008), The Election Administration of Georgia, May 21, 2008 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/ge/archevnebi/2008/parlamentis-archevnebi-19-ge (in Georgian)
Voter Turnout (2012), The Election Administration of Georgia, October 1, 2012 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/ge/archevnebi/2012/parlamentis-archevnebi-2012-136-ge/aqtivoba-2012 (in Georgian)
Voter Turnout (2016), The Election Administration of Georgia, October 8, 2016 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/en/archevnebi/2016/saqartvelos-parlamentis-archevnebi-2016/amomrchevelta-aqtivoba
Voter Turnout (2020), The Election Administration of Georgia, October 31, 2020 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia. https://cesko.ge/en/archevnebi/2020/october-31-2020-parliamentary-elections-of-georgia/aqtivoba
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.