Common action: Can grassroots initiatives propel territorial governance in Montenegro?

Authors

  • Sonja Dragovic University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), Avenida das Forças Armadas, 1649 – 026 Lisbon, Portugal https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8835-6188

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.28.2.05

Keywords:

spatial development, collective initiatives, planning policy, territorial governance

Abstract

In recent years, grassroots organising has become important in advocating for the interests of local communities in spatial development processes in the Balkans. Though differing in terms of size, focus, and method, these initiatives seek to articulate dissatisfaction with the existing models of spatial governance, and to imagine, propose, and demand more just and inclusive alternatives. This paper focuses on grassroots activism contesting the top-down model of governing space in Montenegro. Based on a case-study analysis, it traces developments in the forms of organising and degrees of influence of three distinct initiatives, examining what their impact on the development of territorial governance approach may be.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

ALIHODŽIĆ, R. and STAMATOVIĆ VUČKOVIĆ, S. (2019), Svetlana Kana Radević: Hotel “Podgorica”, Podgorica, Montenegro, 1967, Piranesi, 41 (27), pp. 18–34.
Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. (2016), Neoliberal spatial governance, Abingdon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676647
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676647

BAĆA, B. (2017a), ‘«We Are All Beranselo»: Political Subjectivation as an unintended consequence of activist citizenship’, Europe-Asia Studies, 69, pp. 1430–1454. https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2017.1388357
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2017.1388357

BAĆA, B. (2017b), ‘Civil Society Against the Party-State? The Curious Case of Social Movements in Montenegro’, [in:] MUJANOVIĆ, J. (ed.), Sarajevo, Dialog Südosteuropa.
Google Scholar

Balkan Green Energy News (2020, 03.12.), ‘Nova Vlada Crne Gore će zabraniti male hidroelektrane, pretresti koncesije’, https://balkangreenenergynews.com/rs/nova-vlada-crne-gore-ce-zabraniti-male-hidroelektrane-pretresti-koncesije/ [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

BIEBER, F. (2020), The rise of authoritarianism in the Western Balkans, Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22149-2
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22149-2

ČUKIĆ, I., TIMOTIJEVIĆ, J., STOJIĆ, B., DRAGUSHA, Nj., REXHA, O., DRAGOVIĆ, S. and RAJIĆ, T. (2020), Spaces of Commoning: Urban Commons in the Ex-Yu Region, Belgrade: Institute for Urban Politics.
Google Scholar

DAN (2019a, 21.08.), Žele ekološku Crnu Goru bez siromašnih građana, https://www.dan.co.me/?nivo=3&datum=2019-08-21&rubrika=Drustvo&clanak=709231&najdatum=2019-08-20 [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

DAN (2019b, 31.12), Političke barijere pale u vodu, Bukovicu sloga građana spasila, https://www.dan.co.me/?nivo=3&rubrika=Regioni&clanak=727764&datum=2019-12-31 [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

DAVOUDI, S., EVANS, N., GOVERNA, F. and SANTANGELO, M. (2008), ‘Territorial governance in the making. Approaches, methodologies, practices’, Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, 46, pp. 33–52.
Google Scholar

DOCOMOMO (2015), Hotel Podgorica, https://www.docomomo.com/heritage/threatened/hotel-podgorica [accessed on: 17.01.2022].
Google Scholar

DOMÍNGUEZ, P., KOSTIĆ-MANDIĆ, M. and SEKULOVIĆ, M. (2020), Saving a critical pastureland in Montenegro, Radical Ecological Democracy. https://www.radicalecologicaldemocracy.org/saving-a-critical-pastureland-in-montenegro/ [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/yiel/yvab038

DRAGOVIĆ, S. (2021), ‘The Volatile Policy Framework of Spatial Planning in Montenegro: Will the Centre Hold?’, [in:] BERISHA, E., COTELLA, G. and SOLLY, A. (eds.), Governing Territorial Development in the Western Balkans, Cham: Springer, pp. 131–151.
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72124-4_7

ĐURIĆ, D. (2003), ‘The economic development of Montenegro’, [in:] BIEBER, F. (ed.), Montenegro in transition: Problems of identity and Statehood, Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
Google Scholar

DŽANKIĆ, J. (2018), ‘Capturing Contested States’, Southeastern Europe, 42 (1), pp. 83–106. https://doi.org/10.1163/18763332-04201005
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/18763332-04201005

EPA – Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro (2018), Study of the Protection and Establishment of Protected Natural Area Sinjajevina, https://drive.google.com/file/d/1g15XwP0x3fNPBd86fC9eQ_slysa25kk6/view [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

ESPON (2013), ESPON TANGO – territorial approaches for new governance, Luxemburg: ESPON.
Google Scholar

GALLARDO, B. B., LUKAS, M., STAMM, C. and TORRE, A. (2019), ‘Neoliberalism and territorial governance: Proposals and reflections based on the case of Chile’, Revista De Geografia Norte Grande, 2019 (73), pp. 161–183. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-34022019000200161
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-34022019000200161

GOLUBCHIKOV, O. (2016), ‘The urbanization of transition: ideology and the urban experience’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 57 (4–5), pp. 607–623. https://doi.org/10.1080/15387216.2016.1248461
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15387216.2016.1248461

Green Home (2015), Steps towards sustainable development of small hydropower plants in Montenegro, http://balkanfund.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Steps-towards-Sustainable-Development-of-Small-Hydropower-Plants-in-Montenegro-NGO-Green-Home-Montenegro-1.pdf [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2004), ‘The «new» imperialism: accumulation by dispossession’, Socialist Register, 40, pp. 63–87.
Google Scholar

JOVIĆEVIĆ, I. (2015), Stop, halt the shots, https://www.sacg.me/stanite-zaustavite-hice/ [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

KOMAR, O. (2015), ‘The Development of Civil Society in Montenegro’, [in:] FINK-HAFNER, D. (ed.), The Development of Civil Society in the Countries on the territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1980s, pp. 145–165, Ljubljana: Faculty of Social Sciences.
Google Scholar

LAND RIGHTS NOW (2020), Save Sinjajevina Now: statement in solidarity with traditional communities and protection of nature in Montenegro, https://www.landrightsnow.org/save-sinjajevina-now-statement/ [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

TEMPER, L., AVILA, S., DEL BENE, D. et al., (2020), ‘Movements shaping climate futures: A systematic mapping of protests against fossil fuel and low-carbon energy projects’, Environmental Research Letters, 15, 123004. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abc197
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abc197

MANS (2017), Energetika u mreži privatnih interesa Đukanovića i njegove partije, http://www.mans.co.me/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/EnergetikaUMreziPrivatnihInteresa.pdf [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

MANS (2018), MANS upozorava da država ima malo koristi od privatnih hidroelektrana, http://www.mans.co.me/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/OdProdajeStrujeDrzaviNiPola-1.pdf [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

MAYER, M. and BOUDREAU, J. A. (2012), ‘Social movements in urban politics: trends in research and practice’, [in:] MOSSBERGER, K., CLARKE, S. E. and JOHN, P. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195367867.013.0014
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195367867.013.0014

MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, (2008), Spatial Plan of Montenegro until 2020, http://213.136.71.228/apdokument/Dwnld?id=1119 [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF ECONOMY (2006), Small Hydropower Development Strategy, https://fdocuments.net/document/strategija-razvoja-malih-hidroelektrana-u-crnoj-strategija-razvoja-malih-hidroelektrana.html [accessed on: 17.01.2022].
Google Scholar

MONNO, V. (2014), ‘Sustainability and urban democracy: contradictions and hopes emerging from new forms of collective action’, [in:] ABATE, C. (ed.), Conducir las trasformaciones urbana UPE11, 1, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, pp. 1310–1320.
Google Scholar

MONNO, V. (2016), ‘Activism and urban politics to come: escaping the acceptability trap’, City Territ Archit, 3 (25), pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40410-016-0054-9
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40410-016-0054-9

MUDTCEU (2007), Territorial Agenda of the European Union.
Google Scholar

MUDTCEU (2011), The Territorial State and Perspectives of the European Union.
Google Scholar

OECD (2001), OECD territorial outlook, Paris: OECD.
Google Scholar

OLIVEIRA, E. (2016), ‘Territorial governance across Europe: Pathways, practices and prospects’, Regional Studies, 50 (11), pp. 1943–1944. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2016.1187522
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2016.1187522

PACARA, E. (2016), ‘Hydropower plants as a protest issue in Albania’, Südosteuropa Mitteilungen, 01, pp. 70–82.
Google Scholar

PARLIAMENT OF MONTENEGRO (2018), The Law on Environmental Impact Assessment. Podgorica, Official Gazette of Montenegro.
Google Scholar

PETITIONS.NET (2015, 27.12.), Stop the construction of tower behind the hotel Podgorica, https://www.petitions.net/stats.php?id=133486&lang=sh [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

SAFEJOURNALISTS.NET (2021, 11.02), CEDEM: Half of Montenegrin citizens do not trust the media, only one in five believes that they work in the public interest, https://safejournalists.net/istrazivanje-cedem-a-polovina-gradana-crne-gore-nema-povjerenje-u-medije/ [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

SLOBODNA EVROPA (2013, 15.08.), Will anyone be held accountable for the demolition of the iconic hotel, https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/da-li-ce-neko-odgovarati-za-rusenje-kultnog-hotela/25076470.html [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

SLOBODNA EVROPA (2019, 06.09.), Sinjajevina farmers against cheese “smelling of gunpowder”, https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/sinjevina-strelisni-poligon/30150321.html [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

SLOBODNA EVROPA (2020, 06.08.), The fight against small hydropower plants in Montenegro continues, https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/mhe-i-dalje-predmet-konflikta-u-crnoj-gori-/30769905.html [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

ŠAROVIĆ, R. (2012), ‘Perspektive seoskog domaćinstva i razvoj ruralnog područja u Crnoj Gori’, [in:] VLAHOVIĆ, P. (ed.), Demographic and Population Problems in Montenegro: Society, Family, Youth, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, pp. 380–403. https://canupub.me/hg7s
Google Scholar

ŠIMPRAGA, S. (2021), ‘KANA/Who if not architect interview: «We have no other space»’, Vizkultura, https://vizkultura.hr/intervju-kana/ [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

TULUMELLO, S., COTELLA, G. and OTHENGRAFEN, F. (2020), ‘Spatial planning and territorial governance in Southern Europe between economic crisis and austerity policies’, International Planning Studies, 25 (1), pp. 72–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2019.1701422
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2019.1701422

UNESCO (2018), Report of the joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN Advisory mission to the World Heritage property “Durmitor National Park”, https://whc.unesco.org/en/documents/174707/ [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2013, 09.02.), This year, five small hydropower plants will become operational, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/ekonomija/288085/ove-godine-ce-poceti-da-radi-pet-malih-hidroelektrana [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2015a, 29.12.), Students: Hotel Podgorica should be recognized as cultural heritage, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/147764/studenti-popili-kafu-hotel-podgorica-proglasiti-za-kulturno-dobro-prvog-reda [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2015b, 16.03.), Austrians not giving Grlja up, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/190640/austrijanci-ne-odustaju-od-grlje [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2016a, 21.02.), Along the old and ruined streets of Podgorica, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/139815/ulicama-stare-i-porusene-podgorice [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2016b, 08.01.), Young architects demand inspection’s reaction, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/146454/mlade-arhitekte-zatrazile-reakciju-inspekcije-stopirajte-radove-kod-podgorice [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2016c, 14.12.), The court overturned the decision, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/101680/soliter-kod-hotela-podgorica-sud-ponistio-odluku-glavni-grad-tvrdi-da-dozvola-vazi [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2016d, 05.01.), Initiative: protect hotel Podgorica, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/146927/inicijativa-upucena-miranovic-zastitite-hotel-podgorica [accessed on: 13.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2018a, 25.11.), There are neither rapids nor fish, the water levels amount to nothing, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/15956/ni-bukova-ni-ribe-vode-tek-za-punoglavce-ima [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2018b, 17.01.), They are instilling fear in the river guards, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/47525/cuvarima-rijeke-utjeruju-strah-mjestani-murina-najavili-protest [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2018c, 15.05.), Boskovic: The state needs a training ground on Sinjajevina, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/32712/boskovic-poligon-na-sinjajevini-treba-drzavi-nije-za-gradnju-nato-baze [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2018d, 9.11.), Boskovic: There will be no NATO base on Sinjajevina, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/2538/boskovic-na-sinjajevini-nece-biti-nato-baze-ekoloska-zastita-ce-biti-jaca-i-veca [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2019a, 10.04.), Will explosives endanger the ecological system in Sinjajevina? https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/381337/hoce-li-mine-ugroziti-ekoloski-sistem-na-sinjajevini [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2019b, 29.03.) Defense of Sinjajevina is defense of Montenegro, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/379848/odbrana-sinjajevine-je-odbrana-crne-gore-od-stetocina [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2019c, 19.05.), The nature is winning the war against weapons, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/386308/priroda-pobjeduje-u-ratu-protiv-oruzja [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2020a, 04.10.), WWF: Small hydropower plants are inefficient, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/474609/wwf-mini-hidroelektrane-nisu-efikasne-izgradnjom-njih-svi-gubimo [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2020b, 19.08.), Rakčević: a vote for “Crno na bijelo” is the vote against the destruction of rivers, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/politika/461611/vladu-u-cijev-performans-koalicije-crno-na-bijelo [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2020c, 07.10.), Protest at the small hydropower plant Skrbuša, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/475543/protest-na-mhe-skrbusa-necemo-dozvoliti-nastavak-radova [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2020d, 26.11.), The locals of Bare Kraljske stopped the works, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/489709/mjestani-kraljskih-bara-i-danas-sprijecili-da-se-radovi-na-mhe-nastave [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VIJESTI (2020e, 05.12.), Injac: There will be no military activities on Sinjajevina, https://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/drustvo/492133/injac-na-sinjajevini-nece-biti-nikakvih-vojnih-aktivnosti [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

VUKIĆEVIĆ, S. (2012). ‘Regionalne karakteristike demografskih kretanja u Crnoj Gori’, [in:] VLAHOVIĆ, P. (ed.), Demographic and Population Problems in Montenegro: Society, Family, Youth, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, pp. 423–449, https://canupub.me/hg7s [accessed on: 14.10.2021].
Google Scholar

YUEBO, X., KABO-BAH, A., KABO-BAH, K. and DOMFEH, M. (2018), ‘Hydropower Development – Review of the Successes and Failures in the World’, [in:] KABO-BAH, A. and DIJI, C. J. (eds.), Sustainable Hydropower in West Africa, pp. 53-61, London: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813016-2.00004-6
Google Scholar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813016-2.00004-6

Downloads

Published

2021-12-30

How to Cite

Dragovic, S. (2021). Common action: Can grassroots initiatives propel territorial governance in Montenegro?. European Spatial Research and Policy, 28(2), 83–101. https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.28.2.05

Issue

Section

Articles