Slavica Lodziensia <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>Slavica Lodziensia</em> <strong>(wydawane w latach 2017-2018)</strong> to pismo wydawane przy Katedrze Filologii Słowiańskiej w Uniwersytecie Łódzkim. Periodyk stanowi kontynuację ukazującego się w latach 2004-2014 pisma Południowosłowiańskie Zeszyty Naukowe, którego pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym była prof. dr hab. Małgorzata Korytkowska. Obecne pismo wpisuje się w tradycję czasopisma łączącego tematykę z zakresu historii i teorii literatury, językoznawstwa i kultury obszaru Słowiańszczyzny Południowej. Mamy nadzieję, że tak pomyślane pismo stanie się pomostem między tradycją badań słowianoznawczych a współczesnością tak dynamicznie zmieniającą się w dobie nowoczesnych technologii i cyfryzacji.</p> </div> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego pl-PL Slavica Lodziensia 2544-1795 Odwołania do świata zwierząt w bułgarskich nazwach roślin zielnych <p>The names of herbaceous plants belong to the oldest layer of vocabulary in Slavic languages, so many studies have been conducted so far. In addition to the official and scientific nomenclature, there is also a rich folk terminology regarding herbaceous plants. The subject of consideration are just such names, rooted in the language and created by the Bulgarian language users themselves, and especially the part of them which somehow refers to the broadly understood world of animals. The analysis will be limited to the names of herbaceous plants found in Bulgaria. This limitation is dictated by the certainty that we are dealing with a native name, not a borrowing from another language, and the role of these plants in the folk culture. From this point of view both the construction and the word formation motivation are considered.</p> Mariola Walczak-Mikołajczakowa Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 31 43 10.18778/2544-1795.02.02 Wokół problemów semantycznej kategorii określoności/nieokreśloności i struktury tematyczno-rematycznej w języku bułgarskim i polskim <p>The paper discusses the interplay between the semantic category of definiteness/indefiniteness and thematic-rhematic structure. Special attention is paid to the semantic requirements that must be met by phrases that may undergo thematization. The “thematizability” of both general and unique phrases is stressed and considered an argument in favour of the common treatment of generality and uniqueness.</p> Jakub Banasiak Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-04 2019-06-04 2 45 50 10.18778/2544-1795.02.03 Tłumacz-dokumentalista wobec wyzwań współczesności <p>The paper shows issues related to the work of Polish-Bulgarian non-literary interpreters. The challenges they face are owing to organizational, work-related and economic reasons. Their number is small and the work they do doesn’t pay well. The influx of new terminology and legal norms makes the need for dictionary and specialized queries ever increasing. The need of training is required (including English language). Also the current state of Bulgarian language lexicography is confronted with user needs and the current state of both languages.</p> Hanna Karpińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 51 58 10.18778/2544-1795.02.04 Polsko-bułgarskie korpusy IS PAN i CLARIN-PL <p>Multilingual corpora have found many applications in arts and humanities and social sciences, as well as in translation. A number of ways exist in which multilingual corpora can be used. Translators and CAT users would predominantly use translation memories (TM). Other users can choose from two ways of accessing the resources produced by The Institute of Slavic Studies. In the first method, the user needs to download the open-source TMX translation memories from CLARIN-PL DSpace repository ( and load it into their preferred computer application. One can found free and proprietary applications that facilitate querying multilingual corpora; CLARIN-PL also offers free tools. The other method of accessing the multilingual data produced by The Institute of Slavic Studies does not require any advanced computer skills from the user. CLARIN-PL webpage includes the KonText search engine, which contains also Polish-Bulgarian resources (https://kontext. The Polish-Bulgarian corpus contains the following types of resources: (1) fiction literature, (2) specialist literature (literature that is a reflection of the latest technological and cultural developments); and (3) film dialogues, which are the most similar to spoken language.</p> Danuta Roszko Roman Roszko Wojciech Sosnowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 59 70 10.18778/2544-1795.02.05 Słowiański kompleks Europy? Wzajemne relacje między Bułgarami a Zachodem <p>The aim of the article was to show the relationship between Bulgaria and Europe in the past and of the present-day. The material used here comprises the texts of Western authors who perpetuated and still perpetuate the condescending treatment of Bulgarians and Bulgaria. The opinions of the Bulgarians about Europe were also presented. It was observed that the negative image of this country is determined by its location in the Balkans. The literature of the Western authors has preserved the idea of the Balkans as a battlefield between East and West, between barbarity and civilization. The border between Europe and the Balkans was understood in the past as a journey from civilization into the wild, from freedom to tyranny. Undoubtedly, the centuries of Turkish rule have left its mark on the inhabitants and culture of the Balkans. Bulgarians inhabiting a part of the Balkan Peninsula automatically found themselves in a part of the continent ill-perceived by the “Western world”. On the other hand, among the Bulgarians, as part of the Slavic world, there is a complex of underestimation and pursuit of Europe. Terms and wording related to the backwardness and catching up with Europe have become an element of the Bulgarian discourse. Bulgarian thinking duplicates stereotypes about the glory of the West and the Europeanization which they aspire to.</p> Lilla Moroz-Grzelak Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 71 80 10.18778/2544-1795.02.06 Bułgarskie diaspory w Południowo-Wschodniej Europie (Besarabia, Nadazowie, Krym) – uwagi wstępne <p>There are three types of Bulgarian diaspora in Southeastern Europe (in Bessarabia, on the north coast of the Sea of Azov, and in the Crimea).The Bulgarians in Bessarabia are well known and described in scientific literature. The remaining two types are barely known even in Bulgaria itself. Though the first traces of Bulgarian people in the area of our concern are earlier, the presently existing diaspora arose as a result of mass and top-down displacement actions organized by the Russian authorities in the nineteenth century. All three types of Bulgarian diaspora were affected to varying degrees by turbulent history of the inhabited region. The fate of the Bulgarians in the Crimea and in the Sea of Azov region was the most tragic, whereas better fate met the Bulgarians in Bessarabia. It is no wonder, then, that despite many adversities, they (together with the Gagauz) still occupy the area of compact settlement in Southern Moldova and in the Odessa Oblast in Ukraine. Due to the limited scope, the text has, most of all, an informative character for Polish reader. The article presents the existence of this interesting part of Bulgarian nation which has lived far from its old homeland for over two hundred years. The aim of this text is also to encourage further profound scientific research (above all in the historical, ethnological, sociological, linguistic studies, but also in political sciences, and others).</p> Jerzy Hatłas Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 81 89 10.18778/2544-1795.02.07 Znaczenie „Historii Słowianobułgarskiej” Paisija Chilendarskiego dla krytyki historiograficzno-literackiej i jej recepcja w perspektywie diachronicznej <p>Formally, Slavonic-Bulgarian History (Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya) of Paisius of Hilendar is a manifesto of the era and a source of knowledge for Bulgarians and other Slavic nations. However, the glorification of history and its prominent heroes, presented with the help of emotional rhetoric, indicates the educational and patriotic destiny of the work. Despite some factual inaccuracies, the work has become the second most important book after the Bible for the Bulgarian nation. The author also showed in it interesting facts that arouse discussions in contemporary science. The work cannot be named just a chronicle, because history in it not only enlightens, but is an indispensable foundation for statehood and national identity. The above statement leads to the conclusion that interest in work of Paisius is growing in European society, which underlines the rich past of the Slavs and is a symbol of the struggle of the Bulgarian people for its freedom.</p> Vitaliy Zatylnyy Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 91 100 10.18778/2544-1795.02.08 Miejsce imienia w kulturze bułgarskiej. Związek imienia z życiem jednostki i społeczności <p>The author analyzes the role of given name in Bulgarian culture and focuses on the role played by name in Bulgarian society. Detailed analysis has been subjected to the protective function of the name. The reader may refer to the traditional names used in Bulgaria, find out how they were created and what they mean, as well as how to affect the fate of the family by using proper name. The author also describes the importance of the name and the factors, that influence his choice. The article also presents statistics on the most popular Bulgarian names in 2017.</p> Magdalena Gapsa Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 101 108 10.18778/2544-1795.02.09 „Kukerzy” – przykład obrzędowości karnawałowej w Bułgarii <p>The author analyses Bulgarian ritual called <em>kukeri</em> as an example of carnival rituals in Bulgaria. Special consideration is taken into history and description of the carnival processions and the meaning of the Pernik Festival to local community. In the first part the main goal is to present a special time of the year in that culture as well as the <em>kukeri</em> procession. In the second part, author presents similar ritual, called <em>kurentovanje</em>, that takes place in Slovenia and deals with finding the meaning of Festival to inhabitants of Pernik and the role of UNESCO list to spread the magic of fertility, success and wealthy of a human being to tourists around the world.</p> Magdalena Zytka Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 109 118 10.18778/2544-1795.02.10 Opis walki ze Strzygą w opowiadaniu „Wiedźmin” Andrzejа Sapkowskiego. Porównanie oryginału z bułgarskim tłumaczeniem <p>The paper compares the description of the fight with the striga in Andrzej Sapkowski’s short story The Witcher to its translation into Bulgarian by Vasil Velchev. While the short story is from the first book of the Witcher series in terms of story chronology, its translations into foreign languages pose questions on the level of translatability of fantasy stories and their differences in other cultures due to linguistic, historical and literary traditions. In the case of Sapkowski’s short story such challenge to translators is offered by medieval settings and knightly realia typical for the genre and for Polish national history, however lacking in terms of comprehensive parallels in Bulgarian culture. The analysis reveals several groups of disproportions between the original text and its Bulgarian translation.</p> Agnieszka Chmielowiec Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 119 123 10.18778/2544-1795.02.11 Oczami dziecka, czyli porównanie szaty graficznej we współczesnych elementarzach (polskim i bułgarskim) dla pierwszoklasistów <p>The paper examines the graphic and illustrative elements in contemporary Polish and Bulgarian alphabet books. The comparative approach reveals basic similarities and significant differences between the selected textbooks concerning the preferred thematic fields in the primary education process in both countries. The analysis allows to differentiate the prevailing motives and values depicted in the textbooks (such as family and social relations, national symbols, modern technologies), the strategies of presenting the letters of the alphabet, the leading book characters, etc.</p> Justyna Fąfara Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 125 131 10.18778/2544-1795.02.12 Polityka cara Kałojana wobec Konstantynopola <p>The short reign of Bulgarian tsar Ivan III Kaloyan was determined mostly by his policies towards different rulers of Constantinople – firstly, the Byzantine Angelos dynasty, then the crusaderbased Latin Empire. However, during the first years (1197–1204), his main aim was reunification of the newly liberated state and consolidation of power. Kaloyan achieved this goal by his skillful selection of allies and proper approach to the Papacy as the by-time European superpower. Only having his basic interests secured, Kaloyan launched a campaign to conquer Constantinople and replace Byzantium with a new Greco-Slavonic state – firstly in co-operation with the Latin knights of the Fourth Crusade, then acting against them as a self-proclaimed protector of the Byzantine heritage. Unfortunately, in this period (1204–1207) Bulgarian ruler’s political calculations proved to be often wrong, which – in combination with his distrust towards the Greek population – resulted in his eventual failure and assasination.</p> Marcin Antczak Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 133 140 10.18778/2544-1795.02.13 Current aspects of socio-cultural communication <p>В динамичния съвременен свят обществените отношения се съпровождат от отношения на общуване, при което се развиват процесите на социалната комуникация. Средствата за масова комуникация оказват влияние както на социално-политическата, така и на културно-и-деологическата дейност от живота на обществото. Модерното комуникационно общество се характеризира с постоянното ускоряване и глобализация на социокултурната комуникация. Непрекъснато се увеличава степента и качеството на този тип взаимодействия, нараства броят на хората, които участват в комуникационните процеси. Връзките между отделните форми на комуникация стават все по-обхватни и комуникационната мрежа расте до такава степен, че придобива глобални измерения. Социокултурната комуникация създава нова сфера за развитие, свързана е с изучаване на поведението, връзките и взаимодействията сред големите социални групи.</p> Nadezhda Nikolova Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 141 147 10.18778/2544-1795.02.14 Изображения на Паисий Хилендарски върху българските пощенски марки. „Царският Паисий“ <p>The author analyzes the images of Paisii Hilendarski, printed on Bulgarian postage stamps. It is shown that in Bulgaria for a period of 92 years (1920–2012) a total of 10 postage stamps have been validated. They reflect the memory of the Bulgarians: both for Paisii and for Slavo-Bulgarian History. It is suggested that every Bulgarian cultural and historical age imposes its own rules on how to display the monk from Hilendar. The article follows the program of the project: ‘From one man’s lips to another’s ear’ … and all the way to the Internet’ (Project № FP-17 FlF-004/16.05.2017, Department for Scientific Research, Plovdiv University ‘Paisii Hilendarski’).</p> Мила Кръстева Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 149 162 10.18778/2544-1795.02.15 Документи и дела. Една книга за България, издадена в Полша <p>The article aims to represent a recently recovered anthology about Bulgaria printed in Poznan, Poland, in 1938. Inspired by Diana Crane’s idea of the invisible colleges the authors retrace the intercommunication within a circle of researchers interested in promoting Bulgaria abroad. The revisited and almost unknown until now biography of the main editor of the book – Metody Konstantinov – is an avenue of approach to the specific paradigm that connects all the participants in the anthology. A short summary of the anthologised articles encompasses several main linguistic problems concerning the retrieving of the texts.</p> Мая Иванова Адриана Ковачева Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 163 171 10.18778/2544-1795.02.16 Съвременни нагласи към съотношението писмен: устен български език <p>The study analyses answer given to three questions part of a nationally representative survey on linguistic attitudes towards written grammatical norms. These questions are aimed at gathering information about the possible attitudes of modern Bulgarians towards the magnitude distance between the Bulgarian written standard language and oral speech. Another aim of the study is to explore respondents‘ preferences concerning the question of synchronization between the two existing language forms - written and oral. The survey clearly shows that more than 61% of respondents are of the opinion that the differences between the Bulgarian written and spoken language should be decreased, respectively, there needs to be a process of convergence and equalization of the two language codes. The study applies the hyper-square method in order to explore which socio-demographic factors have a major influence on respondents‘ attitudes. The domineering view (69% of the respondents) is that oral speech should be in line with the Bulgarian written standard language, consequently, grammatical rules should be followed and taken on board when speaking. Finally, the chi-square method is applied when defining the factors which determine the respondents‘ attitudes. The study introduces the idea that conservative attitudes are likely to appear amongst Bulgarian adults as they have the idea of decreasing the differences between the Bulgarian written and oral language by finding a way of synchronizing them.</p> Красимира Алексова Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 173 183 10.18778/2544-1795.02.17 Нагласи на днешните български емигранти към родния език и родното образование <p>The attitudes of the numerous Bulgarian emigrants, scattered across the continents, to our language and to his use abroad are of particular importance for the Bulgarian state and language policy regarding emigration. The two questionnaires were conducted among the Bulgarian emigrant community in Sydney, Australia on one side and worldwide (where the answers came from) on the other side. In this report are commented the results of both questionnaires. Only those answers that reflect the attitudes of today’s emigrants to the use of their native Bulgarian language in daily communication and their willingness to participate in Bulgarian education abroad of their children are analyzed here. The characteristics of the attitudes of Bulgarian emigrants to their native language and Bulgarian education abroad are valuable in terms of the future work of Bulgarian linguistics and Bulgarian governmental institutions. Their main priority should be the delay of the process of forgetting the Bulgarian language from the generations.</p> Катя Исса Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 185 196 10.18778/2544-1795.02.18 Членуването на имената в българския език във функционална перспектива (идеи за преподаването му на чуждестранни студенти българисти) <p>The paper discusses the practical dimensions of one of the most important and most complex questions in teaching the Bulgarian language to foreigners, which is the article. The author offers a model for teaching the article that includes ten major cases of its usage and is based on personal experience as a Bulgarian language lecturer. The paper’s aim is to suggest new ideas in teaching Bulgarian to foreigners.</p> Димка Савова Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 197 203 10.18778/2544-1795.02.19 Назоваването на най-новите реалности и виртуалности (по примери от киберекологията) <p>The paper examines Bulgarian names of concepts (terms or quasi-terms) concerning today’s and future developments of technology, computer systems as well perceptions and experiences related to these technologies and systems. The subject area chosen for analysis is that of cyberecology. The author discusses the neological character of the terms naming new realities and virtualities (including the terms with the formal element cyber-), the structural and semantic features of selected terms while emphasizing the influence of English models. The texts studied in the cyberecological area are considered to be term-generating with a view to their primacy within a new language for specific purposes. Furthermore, attention is drawn to the cognitive syntax (i.e. the ways of introducing new concepts) of the cyberecological texts. The general conclusion of the paper is that the linguistic observation of a sublanguage for specific purposes which is in the on-going process of creation is needed considering that it is important for the future of the Bulgarian language to have Bulgarian names for the future realities.</p> Илияна Генев-Пухалева Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 205 210 10.18778/2544-1795.02.20 Българската поезия през 90-те години на XX век и културната памет <p>The purpose of the article is to discuss the issues related to Bulgarian poetic works of the 1990s as a medium of cultural memory. Theoretical findings regarding the relationship between literature, memory (A. Nünning, A. Erll) and cultural memory (J. Assmann, A. Assmann) in literary science research have been presented. Тhe current literary studies in the field of relations between the Bulgarian poetry of the 90s and its connections with the past, cultural memory and tradition (P.&nbsp;Doynov, P. Antov) have been discussed. Various roles which Bulgarian poetic works (A. Ilkov, P. Doynov, Z. Zlatanov, P. Antov, B. Bogdanov, G. Gospodinov, B. Penchev) play in the field of the culture of memory have been described: dominate incorporating/refreshing the glorious and eminent national past into the structure of poetic texts, conducting a dialogue with the literary tradition in the form of rewriting it and redefining its meanings, holding a discussion with the national cultural heritage, updating places of cultural memory. It turns out, that poetic texts have the ability to create, reconstruct, affirm and transform memory, propose new versions of memory and form reflections taking place in the area of cultural memory.</p> Dorota Gołek-Sepetliewa Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 211 218 10.18778/2544-1795.02.21 Съвместна употреба на кирилица и латиница в български текст –защо и кога <p>The author investigates in which cases the joint use of Cyrillic and Latin is used in Bulgarian text and for what purpose: definition, determination, citation, operative language, code-switching and code-blending, use as a stylistic tool and parallel bilingual text. The nature of these uses is described and the extent to which they are manifestations of phenomena such as bilingualism and digraphia. The general conclusion is that the joint use of Latin and Cyrillic is the result of the expansion of bilingualism with English. More and more Bulgarian citizens have an extended field of use of variants of two languages and two graphical systems. Secondly, the application of the Latin alphabet is a step towards the universal language of the image, since its graphic image acts as a visual symbol of pragmatic knowledge.</p> Людмила Кирова Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 219 231 10.18778/2544-1795.02.22 За „българските мозайки” и княгиня Венцислава-Виола в полската литературна и културна памет <p>The author analyzes the presentations of the Bulgarian theme in Polish poetry and the popular culture (historical spectacles about Princess Ventsislava Viola in the Opole region, Poland). In Polish historical memory, the story of the Bulgarian Princess Ventsislava Viola (?–1251), the wife of Duke Casimir I, has been preserved in the Annals of Jan Długosz (Ioannes Dlugossius, 1415–1480). Analysis of poetical works from the twentieth century by Tadeusz Różewicz, Anna Kamieńska, Jan Zych, Jan Śpiewak and other authors devoted to Bulgaria, considered in literary discourse, makes it possible to identify five codes of artistic interpretation: stone as the quintessence of Bulgaria, history and metaphysics, beauty, ancient and medieval archaeological monuments of the Bulgarian lands, the land of abundant harvest.</p> Галя Cимеонова-Конах Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 233 244 10.18778/2544-1795.02.23 Христо Ботев: канонизиране и комерсиализиране на образа <p>The paper is focused on the history of the ideological unification of the image of Hristo Botev, when a monolith biography of him was forged from numerous diverse narratives about his life. That canonical narrative was smooth and not contradictory. During 20-ties and 30-ties of XX c., when nationalism was rising into trendy social movement, the image of Botev was sanctified, sharing a row with Vasil Levsky and becoming a leading figure in Bulgarian national heroic pantheon. With his affirmation as a national emblem, Botev‘s image became the subject of commercial uses, which are considered using the concepts of „consumerist nationalism” (B. Penchev) and “consumption of identity” (Anne-Marie Thiesse). During the years of socialism Botev was present in a consumer culture that functioned as utopia for future prosperity beyond any economic logic. The national hero can be seen as connected to that utopia, while reading the books of impressions in the “Hristo Botev” National Museum in the town of Kalofer, where he was born. Visitors also show disappointment with the promised, but unrealized socialist prosperity. In post-socialist years the image of Botev falls into a conglomerate of Euro-centric, nationalistic, nostalgic-communist and commercial manifestations.</p> Анна Алексиева Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 245 263 10.18778/2544-1795.02.24 Приносът на Иван Богоров към оформянето на българската преса през XIX век <p>Ivan Bogorov is not only the one of the first Bulgarian journalists, but he is also one of the most important ones. He create several important newspapers and magazines like for example “Bălgarski orel” (bg. “Bulgarian eagle”), “Carigradski vestnik” (bg. “Tsargrad journal”) and “Bălgarski knižici” (bg. “Bulgarian books”). His activity in this field not only created the direction of the development of the Bulgarian press, but also was popularising Bulgarian bookcraft by giving an opportunity of publishing works to authors such as Petko Slavejkov, Jordan Hadžikonstantinov Džinot, Sava Filaretov and Konstantin Miladinov. Thanks to the activists like Ivan Bogorov Bulgarian journalism achieved fast growth and in the period of few years has been aligned with the older and developed presses in Europe, like for example Czech one.</p> Лех Церан Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 265 272 10.18778/2544-1795.02.25 Дипломатическата кариера на Константин Петкович <p>The paper presents one of the many dimensions of Konstantin Petkovic’s case – his diplomatic career in the service of the Russian Empire. Konstantin Petkovic is a part of the team of the leading Russian diplomat – Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov. He is the last chancellor of the Russian Empire and head of the foreign policy of the Northern Empire during the reign of Emperor Alexander II. His diplomatic career is in Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Lebanon.</p> Галина Никодимова Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 273 281 10.18778/2544-1795.02.26 Śp. Profesor Violetta Koseska i jej kluczowe teorie lingwistyczne Danuta Roszko Roman Roszko Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 2 11 29 10.18778/2544-1795.02.01