Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Litteraria Romanica <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Litteraria Romanica</em> is a pluridisciplinary publication especially devoted to studies dealing with the Romanic literatures from the Middle ages to the present day as well as to studies of the reception of Antiquity in modern times. The preferred language of publication is French, though other romance languages and Polish have also been used. The revue publishes contributions from Polish and foreign scholars. As regards literary studies, methodologies are varied and topics covered may relate to literary history, genres, literary currents, as well as epistemological issues that have a bearing on the history of ideas.</p> </div> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego en-US Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Litteraria Romanica 1505-9065 Forms of Address: a Few Remarks on Emotional Exchanges in Comics <p><em>Fillette, chérie, coquine, doudou</em>... the forms of address constitute an important discursive operator of emotional exchanges. Such forms encompass both the expression of tenderness or, quite simply, the mark of affectivity and social and ritual behaviours, giving individuals the possibility of sharing the same experiences. The aim of our study will be primarily to examine the semantic content of the forms of address mobilised in the comic strip story, with an emphasis on those which appeal to non-standard registers of language. First, this approach will allow us to give some paths for reflection on the thematic arrangement around which the terms in question are coined. Next, we will seek to identify and describe the enunciative and pragmatic features of a discourse based on the affective component. More specifically, we will try to analyse the functional values and the expressive dimension of the forms of address favoured by contemporary comics.</p> Anna Bobińska Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 13 22 10.18778/1505-9065.16.02 How to Express the Intensity of Love in Words? <p>In this paper, we present a forecast of search results for intensifiers that combine with the keywords <em>amour</em>, <em>amoureux</em>, <em>aimer </em>in the proposed <em>Electronic Dictionary of Intensifying Linguistics Structures in French Language – Dictionnaire électronique des structures linguistiques d</em>’<em>intensité en français </em>(<em>DESLIF</em>), and also an attempt to define the way how these results could be incorporated into the entries of this dictionary. Adjectives, adverbs, verbs, intensifying constructs <em>comme SN / comme P </em>/ <em>à SV </em>and marked synonyms of the keywords, notifying strong or weak intensity, will be examined. The method used to describe the material is based on assumptions of Explanatory-Combinatorial Lexicology by Mel’čuk &amp; Polguère. The examples come from linguistics corpora and allow particularly to report the use of such intensifiers in colloquial, popular and slang French.</p> Małgorzata Izert Ewa Pilecka Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 23 38 10.18778/1505-9065.16.03 Love in French and in Polish – a Cognitive Study <p>The description of the conceptualization of the notion of love is based on the analysis of the Polish and French proverbs and quotes. The linguistic cognitive method applied is based on establishing <em>Idealized Cognitive Models </em>(<em>ICM</em>s), i.e. metaphors and conceptual metonymies. The following six types of source domains grouping individual ICMs have been identified: a person; an abstract notion; an object, a living organism; a cosmogonic universal; and a cultural universal. <em>ICM</em>s have also been assigned to individual types of semantic universals. People comprehend love in terms of diversified categories: both axiological ones as well as physical reactions. Most <em>ICM</em>s occur in both languages. Poles describe love by means of all types of semantic universals, while Frenchmen, more frequently than us Poles, comprehend this emotion in terms of cultural universals. Conceptual paradigms construct in some cases such structures in which more detailed models are assigned to general, generic <em>ICM</em>s.</p> Magdalena Lipińska Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 39 48 10.18778/1505-9065.16.04 The Words amour and miłość, aimer and kochać in French and Polish: Semantics, Derivation, Phraseology <p>The text is a presentation of the presence of the words <em>amour</em>/<em>miłość </em>(Eng. love) and <em>aimer</em>/<em>kochać </em>(Eng. to love) in French and Polish, taking into account the differences in semantics and use in both languages. The semantic relationship of the words <em>amour</em>/<em>miłość </em>and <em>amitié</em>/<em>przyjaźń </em>(Eng. friendship) is indicated, as well as the difference in the degree of semantic intensity between these words. Their derivative phrases and phraseological expressions in which they appear are also presented. The richness of the synonyms for the French word <em>aimer </em>is noted as well as the difference in the meaning of Polish words <em>kochać </em>and <em>lubić </em>(Eng. to like) and their French counterparts <em>aimer </em>and <em>aimer bien/beaucoup </em>with the use of strengthening adverbs, which paradoxically reduce the intensity of the emotional meaning of the verb <em>aimer </em>‘to love’ to a degree corresponding to the meaning of Polish <em>lubić </em>in specific contexts. Although the words <em>amour </em>and <em>aimer </em>belong to language universals, their meanings and scope of use turn out to be different in both languages.</p> Anna Bochnakowa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 49 55 10.18778/1505-9065.16.05 Do tomber amoureux and zakochać się Describe the Same Reality? <p>The aim of the article is to analyze the French phrase <em>tomber amoureux </em>and the prefixed Polish verb <em>zakochać się</em>. The analysis aims to see if the semantic contents of the two verbs, which result of their constructions, are exactly the same. The invariant of <em>tomber</em>, which has both locative and non-locative / abstract uses, is complex and includes two basic meaning elements: downward movement and contact, which the language selects according to the given use. On the other hand, the phrase <em>tomber amoureux </em>can be analyzed as a collocation, where <em>tomber </em>is a collocator. The Polish predicate is built on the basis of <em>kochać </em>(psychological verb), with the prefix <em>za-</em>. Polish attaches considerable importance to the prefix, the meaning of which is added to that of the verbal base. The analysis reveals that <em>tomber amoureux </em>expresses a change of state and underlines the beginning of the action, while <em>zakochać się </em>emphasises the intensity of the feeling to which the verbal base refers.</p> Joanna Cholewa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 57 65 10.18778/1505-9065.16.06 Regarding Some Proverbs that Praise Women <p>The proverb reflects social realities and popular beliefs. It can be considered within the framework of a comparative paremiology, so that we undertake this study as a contribution to the French- Spanish-Galician phraseological dictionary. We have resorted to whole paroemias in the French languages, belonging to different times and without the limitation of an Eurocentric perspective, basing ourselves on this <em>Francophone culture</em>, as a linguistic, cultural and sociological ensemble of the Francophonie. This field of work has been restricted to proverbs relating in some way to love, in the broad sense, associated with the female figure, as a source of fulfilment, of discernment, of opulence, in her role as irreplaceable mother or as an equal to the man. It is only a question of those which praise or transmit a positive aspect of women, at least in one of their possible interpretations, unlike the others, much more usual and numerous, which offer a negative image.</p> Verónica Rodriguez Ferreiro Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 67 83 10.18778/1505-9065.16.07 Love and Its Expressions in Certain Slangs of the World <p>One of the most frequent themes in the world, love, is the subject of many controversies. The aim of this paper is to show a little how the language of love is articulated in certain slangs of the world. Slang is frequently identified as a little crude in its expressions of love which concern mainly sexuality. However, sexuality is differently perceived in different cultures. What is considered to be very vulgar in one language is felt as less vulgar in another language and culture. Based on the assumption that we live in mostly patriarchal societies, some notions of taboos related to sexuality remain the same especially in the cultures where patriarchy is very pronounced. However, our attitude to these expressions – which reveal one intimate and frequently unconscious part of us – remains not only collective (perceiving something as vulgar for example) but also profoundly individual.</p> Alma Sokolija Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 85 94 10.18778/1505-9065.16.08 Love and Sexuality in Non-standard Bulgarian Language Varieties <p>This article offers a critical view at the vocabulary related to love, sex, people involved in romantic relationships and their roles in love-play. The analysis covers a period of more than hundred years – from the end of the nineteenth century, through the years of the communist regime to the present day. During this period, the specific slang and colloquial vocabularies related to love and to sex have undergone significant changes, both in terms of the abundance of words and their meanings, as well as in terms of origin, diffusion and use of the lexical units. Their function in cinema, literature, popular songs, the media and even in the official political discourse is also analysed. Particular attention is paid to the “unslangisation” of a number of lexemes and their gradual integration into colloquial speech and into the language practice of people of all ages, professions and social statuses.</p> Gueorgui Armianov Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 95 103 10.18778/1505-9065.16.09 The Lexical Field of Love in Hungarian Youth Slang <p>Our research focuses on the analysis of the lexical field of <em>love </em>in Hungarian youth slang. The point of departure of our research is Dávid Szabó’s doctoral thesis entitled <em>L’argot des étudiants budapestois </em>(The youth slang of Budapest), published in 2004, which contains in an appendix a Hungarian-French bilingual dictionary of youth slang. Based on Szabó’s research and dictionary, our online questionnaire study had three main objectives: 1) verify the frequency of use of words and expressions related to the lexical field of <em>love </em>and present in Szabó’s dictionary, 2) collect a new corpus composed of words and expressions presenting the actual usage, 3) analyse some communicative situations in which those words and expressions are used. Our article drew the conclusion that Hungarian youth slang both does and does not change. Nearly twenty years after Szabó’s research, there are of course new expressions used by young Hungarians, but the various mechanisms governing word formation in Hungarian youth slang remain the same.</p> Máté Kovács Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 105 117 10.18778/1505-9065.16.10 The Regional Hypocoristic Appellation as a Marker of Attachment <p>This contribution aims at presenting the affective appellations built on the basis of regional lexical funds and showing that these “friendly formulae by which we speak” (Tamine, 2006) are a remarkable means of saving the speech which is characteristic of this or that locality. As with any other dialect, this is the case in Champagne and Ardennes regiolects, where a considerable part of the names intended to address a person of acquaintance is represented by expressive vocatives. The study of these important elements of the regional vocabulary includes the description of the different types of affectionate transpositions used in the interlocution, the analysis of the morpho-semantic varieties of these lexical units. Particular attention is paid to specific regiolectals as markers of attachment, such as collective or individual nicknames used as appellations, first names whose morphological modification is a hypocoristic semantic trace, or even “regional names of various members of a family” (Bourcelot, 2012).</p> Tatiana Retinskaya Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 119 127 10.18778/1505-9065.16.11 Inventiveness and Renewing the (Literary or Slang) Lexicon for an Atemporal Activity <p>In academic French, there are relatively few verbs or expressions referring to the sex act (<em>honorer une femme </em>is jocular, <em>coïter</em>, <em>copuler </em>didactic). There are, however, a large number in non-conventional French. Some of these are presented in this article, direct transitives (<em>baiser</em>, <em>sauter</em>…), indirect transitives (<em>lui dégager les </em>écoutilles…) and even some intransitives (<em>tirer son coup</em>…), all from a predominantly male point of view. Slang changes: <em>bouillaver</em>, <em>niquer</em>, <em>pécho… </em>and occurs also in literary inventiveness: <em>faire catleya </em>(Proust), <em>jouer le jeu de la bête à trois dos </em>(Jorif), <em>acalifourcher </em>(San-Antonio)… Two humourous songs close this selection: <em>Les ratés de la bagatelle </em>(subtitled <em>la chose</em>) and <em>Les nuits d’une demoiselle</em>, which teem with a multitude of synonymic verbs and expressions. One serious neologism has been proposed by the feminist philosopher Bini Adamczak, <em>circlusion</em>, to avoid the male viewpoint inherent in <em>pénétration</em>.</p> Jean François Sablayrolles Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 129 140 10.18778/1505-9065.16.12 Love in the Raw: the Language of Gay and Bisexual Porn Actors’ Biographies on Pornographic Websites <p>Various manifestations of love are well and truly widespread today on thematic websites which seem to have become essential for effective marketing strategies. Among such web pages, there are very specific portals, namely pages of pornographic content where one can very easily have access to countless photos and videos allowing users to satisfy their appetites. Our analysis is based on a corpus for which we have obtained and examined variational non-standard diastratic material, that is to say, one hundred erotic biographies of homo- and bisexual X-rated actors gathered on the French-speaking site: <a href=""></a> The objective of our study is to see more closely how the contemporary French language, and more precisely its linguistic variety linked to the social implantation of users, speaks of physical love during a time of obsession with body image, reinforced by new technologies.</p> Mateusz Białas Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 141 148 10.18778/1505-9065.16.13 The Formation of a Collective Identity Through Expressions of ‘Love’ and ‘Hate’: An Exploratory Analysis of the Discourse of Football Fans in Germany and France <p>Football is an exemplary platform where the social dynamics within and between societies can be regularly observed. In addition, online message boards are a rich resource of everyday expressions where football fans express their ‘love’ of their clubs as well as their ‘disdain’ for others. We conducted a qualitative content analysis during two seasons of Olympique de Marseille and FC Bayern Munich as well as Toulouse FC and Hannover 96. Our analysis illustrates that hateful expressions that differentiate groups are much more prevalent and therefore more determinant in the formation of a collective identity. Furthermore, the analysis confirms that the self-conception corresponds to the performance of the teams. While fans of top clubs portray themselves in a positive way because of their team’s sporting performance, fans of teams who are battling against relegation define themselves more in a negative way – feeling a form of inferiority – in order to differentiate themselves whilst still remaining attached to their own club as the club motto implies.</p> Florian Koch Marie-Anne Berron Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 149 159 10.18778/1505-9065.16.14 The Argumentative Function of the doxa in the Discourse on the Macron Couple <p>By analyzing a variety of samples of the digital discourse on the French presidential couple, the aim of this article is to determine how certain stereotypes concerning intergenerational love are invoked in order to argue against the policy of Emmanuel Macron. Couples with a significant age difference in favor of women violate current <em>doxa</em>, because the relationship where the man is older is “normal” or “imaginable”. The Macrons are thus stigmatized and become the target of discriminatory discourse which mainly attacks the president’s wife because of her age and physical appearance. The thesis is that the mentioned stereotypes are mobilized for <em>ad personam </em>argumentation which aims to discredit the President of the Republic. The “anti-doxic” character of his relationship with Brigitte, put in the foreground by his antagonists, acts as an instrument of delegitimization of his person and, in the process, of his policy. In the analyzed case, the <em>ad personam </em>argumentation is carried out in a very peculiar way that one could call <em>ad hoc </em>an “ad coniugem” argumentation.</p> Agnieszka Konowska Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 161 171 10.18778/1505-9065.16.15 Love of the Fatherland in the Discourse of Polish Online Media <p>The present contribution focuses on the discursive strategies used in the Polish online media when they appeal to the feeling of love of the fatherland. The current Polish public discourse on patriotism continues to be marked by historical events such as the three partitions of the country, the uprisings against the invaders, and the two world wars, and the national identity is often perceived through the prism of love for the fatherland. For this reason, in this article the author examines the discursive strategies currently used the Polish national media as well as the meanings that terms such as <em>patriot</em>, <em>patriotism</em>, and <em>patriotic </em>acquire. The corpus-based analysis draws on articles from online newspapers’ archives published by representative Polish media from right, left and liberal center political orientations (<em>wSieci</em>, <em>Do Rzeczy</em>, <em>Krytyka Polityczna</em>, <em>Dziennik Trybuna</em>, <em>Kultura Liberalna </em>and <em>Liberté</em>).</p> Agnieszka Woch Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 173 182 10.18778/1505-9065.16.16 Onomastic Analysis of the Pseudonyms of Parisian Prostitutes from the 18th to the Beginning of the 20th Century <p>This article is dedicated to the research context of onomastics, more specifically to studies on anthroponymy, or even pseudonymy, and focuses on the current need for onomastic analyses in Romance Studies. Indeed, the use of pseudonyms has received comparatively little linguistic investigation. We have submitted to our analysis a corpus of pseudonyms of prostitutes practising their profession in Paris. This corpus includes 357 pseudonyms and covers a period between the 18th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The data was collected from police reports (archival work) as well as from sociological studies dealing with prostitution in Paris in the 18th and 19th centuries. According to morphosyntactic as well as semantic criteria, we will attempt to apply a taxonomy developed previously to the pseudonyms of prostitutes distinguishing several types of procedures for the formation of pseudonyms of German criminals in the 19th century.</p> Stéphane Hardy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 183 194 10.18778/1505-9065.16.17 A Story of an Unconditional Love and Hate: the Nicknames of Football Teams <p>Our article is a lexical analysis that concerns the world of football and speaks about unofficial names for football teams, which exist alongside their official names and often reflect the strong feelings of their supporters and their opponents. For example, beside the official name, <em>Futbol Club Barcelona </em>the media use metonymic names evoking the colors of the club like <em>Blaugranes </em>or <em>Azulgranas</em>, but they also use a more emotional name – <em>Barça</em>. However, this same club is sometimes given a pejorative name – <em>culés</em>, coming from <em>cul </em>‘behind’ in Catalan, or <em>polacos </em>‘Poles’ (the pejorative name by which the Spanish designate the Catalans). Our analysis of the forms, content and roles of the unofficial names of some (French, Spanish and Polish) football teams allows us to propose a clear distinction between two types of nicknames: <em>surnoms </em>and <em>sobriquets</em>, two very distinct categories of chrematonyms.</p> Alicja Kacprzak Andrzej Napieralski Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 195 208 10.18778/1505-9065.16.18 Mon lapin, ma biche or loulou? The Frequency of Use of Love Nicknames for Women and Men in French in France and in Québécois French <p>The objective of this article is to analyze the use of love nicknames for women and men in the French-speaking context, especially in France and Quebec. From the lexicographic devices and resources of the Web, we have developed a corpus of words which we have analyzed in more detail with the tools of corpus linguistics, namely on the platform <em>Néoveille </em>and in the corpora <em>Araneum </em>allowing to measure the frequencies of employment in the two distinct contexts, French (from France) and Québécois French. This article has a threefold purpose. First, we will try to characterize and classify the affectionate nicknames. Second, we will present all of the words collected for our analysis and we will comment on them according to the processes of their formation or their belonging to a specified domain. Finally, we will verify the frequency of use of a sample of words chosen from the linguistic corpus mentioned above and we will notably compare the two contexts of our research to be able to decide on their similarities or differences.</p> Radka Mudrochová Nyeberth Emanuel Pereira dos Santos Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 209 220 10.18778/1505-9065.16.19 Words of Love in Songs by Edith Piaf <p>All her life, she sought love and sang about it. Édith Giovanna Gassion, known as Édith Piaf, recorded over 300 songs in which love has a special place. Just look at the titles of her songs to understand the meaning of love in the texts interpreted by Piaf: “J’ai dansé avec l’amour”, “C’était une histoire d’amour”, “La vie, l’amour” or “l’Hymne à l’amour”. In our article, we propose to analyze the place and contexts of using the noun <em>love </em>and the verb <em>to love </em>in the lyrics of songs written by Édith Piaf herself and by other authors of the lyrics who worked for her. This diagnostic study will make it possible to identify the entire lexicon linked to the words <em>love </em>and <em>to love</em>, to analyze their importance in Piaf’s work and to make a proposal with a didactic objective. The linguistic analysis will be supplemented with didactic reflection on the possibility of using songs about love from Piaf’s repertoire during French lessons as a foreign language.</p> Mieczysław Gajos Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 221 232 10.18778/1505-9065.16.20 About Youth Love in the Fictional Suburbs <p>The youth language located in the suburbs since the ’90s finds its place in the contemporary novel. The <em>authors chosen for analysis </em>focus on sentiment constraints that adolescents confront in the suburbs with its codes and rites. The research in gender studies reveals a tension between the adolescent’s feeling of love that is difficult to confess and the sexual act associated with a taboo transgression for the girls and manifestations of masculinity for the boys. The boys tend to engage in sexually aggressive behavior, and hide or dominate their feelings seen as a weakness. The girls feel ashamed and guilty about their sexuality because of men’s dominant position and the violence against them. In order to get freedom and respect, the girls become as virile as the boys. The theme of love is relatively new in the representation of suburbs that are no longer considered only as a place of violence, insecurity, and conflict but also as a complex universe of relationships.</p> Olga Stepanova Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 233 240 10.18778/1505-9065.16.21 Words of Carnal Love in the Lyrics of Georges Brassens’ Songs <p>How does Brassens, one of the greatest French singers of all time and one of the most important French poets of the 20th Century speak about sexuality? The choice of the topic of this paper can be explained on the one hand by the reputation of Brassens as an author who was not afraid to call a spade a spade and recorded scandalous songs such as “Le gorille”, “Le mauvais sujet repenti” or “P… de toi”, and on the other, by the stylistic variability of his vocabulary that seems to range from vernacular and slang to formal style. The qualitative analysis described in this paper has confirmed the hypothesis of great stylistic variability among words of carnal love that can be found in the texts of Georges Brassens. However, slang and dirty words are seldom used by this modest libertine who often speaks of sexuality but who is hardly ever explicit.</p> Dávid Szabó Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 241 249 10.18778/1505-9065.16.22 A Dark Portrayal of Love in Les Ombres sanglantes <p>The aim of this paper is to explore the theme of love in <em>Les Ombres sanglantes </em>[<em>The Bloody Shadows</em>] (1820) by J. P. R. Cuisin. Four stories from the volume were chosen for this purpose, including “La demeure d’un parricide, ou le triomphe du remords”; “L’Infanticide, ou la fausse vertu démasquée”; “La guérite de la religieuse, ou la vestale prévaricatrice” and “Niobé, ou l’élève de la nature”. The analysis of these texts revolves around the crimes described by the author in each of the stories, namely parricide, infanticide, breach of religious vows and incest. The violent, destructive and sometimes grotesque manner in which these various sentimental relationships, often of an illicit or even pathological nature, are portrayed in <em>Les Ombres sanglantes </em>diverges considerably from the vision of love typical for the Gothic novel in France at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, clearly marking the advent of the frenetic genre, more and more present in the French literature of this period.</p> Łukasz Szkopiński Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 251 260 10.18778/1505-9065.16.23 Love in Contemporary French Children’s Poetry: Between Lyrical Effusion and Argotic Playfulness <p>The theme of love occupies an important place in contemporary French children’s poetry, being present in very different aspects. The best represented one is love between parents and children. Affective vocabulary, diminutives and childish language indicate a strong emotional interaction between mother and child; tropes (metaphors, personifications etc.) express different facets of love. Poets are sometimes inspired by traditional French lullabies. Full of love, poems teach little readers to appreciate their family, their friends, their homeland, nature, animals, and life. Lyricism, however, does not exclude humour and playfulness. Children love to play and to fool around, and to evoke their mischievous behaviour, poets often recur to slang and familiar vocabulary. The mixture of registers adds to the charm of the poems, whereas a wide range of expressive means reflects the diversity of emotions and feelings.</p> Marina Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 261 267 10.18778/1505-9065.16.24 Foreword. From Language Varieties to Urban Social Linguistics: in Homage to Jean-Pierre Goudaillier Alicja Kacprzak Agnieszka Woch Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 7 12 10.18778/1505-9065.16.01 Comprendre la néologie. Conceptions, analyses, emplois de Jean-François Sablayrolles : compte rendu de lecture Alicja Kacprzak Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 269 275 10.18778/1505-9065.16.25 Alicja Kacprzak, La néologie de l’adjectif en français actuel, Coll. « Linguistique », Presses Universitaires de Łódź, Łódź, 2019 (ISBN 978-83-8142-612-1) Magdalena Szeflińska-Baran Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 16 277 281 10.18778/1505-9065.16.26