Research in Language <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>Research in Language</em> (RiL) is an international journal committed to publishing excellent studies in the area of linguistics and related disciplines focused on human communication. Language studies, as other scholarly disciplines, undergo two seemingly counteracting processes: the process of diversification of the field into narrow specialized domains and the process of convergence, strengthened by interdisciplinarity. It is the latter perspective that RiL editors invite for the journal, whose aim is to present language in its entirety, meshing traditional modular compartments, such as phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, and offer a multidimensional perspective which exposes varied but relevant aspects of language, e.g. the cognitive, the psychological, the institutional aspect, as well as the social shaping of linguistic convention and creativity.</p> <p><a href=""><em>Research in Language</em> on Digital Commons (Elsevier)</a></p> </div> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego en-US Research in Language 1731-7533 Contexts and Consequences of Sentence Splitting in Translation (English-French-Czech) <p>The present paper examines the contexts and consequences of sentence splitting in English, Czech and French translated fiction. In the data extracted from a parallel (multilingual) corpus, we analyze first a language-specific context of sentence splitting (sententialization of non-finite verb forms in translations from English and French into Czech), and second, contexts of splitting occurring in all directions of translation. We conclude that sentence boundaries are usually introduced at the point of a sentence entailing the fewest modifications in the target sentence, especially between two coordinate clauses; and that a systematic sentence splitting, deeply modifying the style of the source text, involves the effect of simplification and normalization.</p> Olga Nádvorníková Copyright (c) 2022 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 19 3 229 250 10.18778/1731-7533.19.3.01 Poetic Cycles and Information Beyond the Micro-Level of Words: On the Translations of Joseph Brodsky's Cycle A Part of Speech Into English and Latvian <p>A poetic cycle is a specific case of poetic contextualisation and for translators this means additional efforts in identifying the micro- and macro-level network of functional and semantic links. Joseph Brodsky’s cycle <em>A Part of Speech</em> represents a highly conceptual approach and strong integration of each and every poem. In this context the paper briefly outlines different types of micro- and macroscopic approaches to poetry translation. Further practical analysis of some translation issues observed in the respective English and Latvian translations show that decisions of poetry translators are informed by different backgrounds in the author-text-reader relationships. Artistic creativity is certainly present in the translation activity but this does not mean that a completely independent target text is produced.</p> Jānis Veckrācis Copyright (c) 2022 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 19 3 251 265 10.18778/1731-7533.19.3.02 Incidental Development of Pronunciation Learning Strategies <p class="002Abstractcontent"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10.0pt;">The studies devoted to the so-called good language learners that emerged in the 1970s (Rubin 1975) reveal that efficient learners fall back on an abundant and highly individualised array of techniques and strategic behaviours related to and employed while learning. The well-known taxonomies by Oxford (1990) and O’Malley and Chamot (1990) gave rise to analyses and investigations in the field of learner autonomy and self-development, also in pronunciation learning/teaching. As has been corroborated by empirical studies (Oxford 2001a; Oxford 2001b; Chamot, 2004) strategy training contributes to the increase in overall proficiency as well as to a number of invaluable benefits such as enhanced motivation, greater self-efficacy, anxiety reduction and more positive attitudes. Although studies dedicated to the relationship between learning strategies and pronunciation are still in their infancy, there are a number of investigations that set the directions for further research and development (Peterson 2000; Pawlak 2008; Pawlak and Oxford 2018).</span></p> <p class="002Abstractcontent"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10.0pt;">The paper presents results of a pilot study conducted in a secondary school that aimed at observing how learners develop pronunciation strategies as a result of regular pronunciation input and feedback from the teacher. It addresses a tentative assumption that explicit pronunciation training may contribute to the enhanced strategy use and consequently to better oral performance. Detecting and naming the strategies employed by the learners as well as selecting the most effective ones for more explicit application aided and boosted the learners’ awareness and confidence, which was confirmed by data obtained from questionnaires and from participant observation. </span></p> Anna Jarosz Copyright (c) 2022 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 19 3 267 282 10.18778/1731-7533.19.3.03 When Do the Leaves Fall and When Do We Reap? – Semantic Analysis of Folk Month Names in the Languages of Eastern Europe <p>The abundance of folk month names in different languages of Eastern Europe results in specific mental pictures in a speaker's mind. Translation usually fails to communicate the elaborate connotations implied, even in the case of closely related languages. The paper gives a comparative semantical analysis of folk month names in the Slavic languages, the Baltic languages, Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, Romanian and Albanian, identifying the common features, the differences and possible reasons for both. The aim of the paper is to provide data for both linguistic and ethnological mapping of Eastern Europe, as an area that had been under less influence from the Latin-dominated culture and had in that way better preserved some original, less uniform linguistic features.</p> Krešimir Sučević Međeral Copyright (c) 2022 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 19 3 285 303 10.18778/1731-7533.19.3.04 Non-Commercial Advertisements: Multimodal Metaphor, Metonymy and Conceptual Blending at Work <p>Nowadays the omnipresence of advertisements, and the necessity of conscious and subconscious mental interpretation of their hidden messages, can hardly be overlooked. In the present article, the authors attempt to provide additional evidence for the role of multimodal metaphor, metonymy, and conceptual blending in hidden cognitive mechanisms involved in the understanding and/or the correct interpretation of printed non-commercial advertisements and their overall communicative effect thus brought about. The objective is to consider and analyse text-image non-commercial advertisements randomly retrieved from the Internet; the analysis is carried out from the cognitive perspective and aims at discussing the functions of multimodal metaphor, metonymy and conceptual blending as powerful mechanisms exploited for creative purposes in advertising texts and accompanying images, and thus in conveying the central ideas embedded in the adverts.</p> Zaiga Ikere Ilze Oļehnoviča Solveiga Liepa Copyright (c) 2022 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 19 3 305 314 10.18778/1731-7533.19.3.05 Non-Equivalence in Translation: Russian-German Diachronic Corpus-Based Dictionaries of Non-Equivalent Units <p>This paper explores the essence of lexical units with no direct equivalents in other languages and introduces a bilingual dictionary of a new type. Such a dictionary is built upon a diachronic corpus of parallel translations with due consideration of the principles of present-day lexicography. The suggested diachronic German-Russian glossary of non-equivalent vocabulary – <em>realia</em> – presents the mega-, macro- and microstructure of a diachronic translation dictionary. The glossary is of a holistic character: it can provide information on the ways different realia were translated in various periods and thus reflect the creative role of translation plurality; it can also influence the formation of translating competence, acquisition of translating skills and skills of comparative analysis.</p> Maria L. Alekseyeva Copyright (c) 2022 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 19 3 315 333 10.18778/1731-7533.19.3.06