International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>International Studies.</em> <em>Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal</em>, is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal devoted to political and cultural studies in the international context. It is one of the first journals of this kind, not only in Poland. but in Central and Eastern Europe. Its scope, however, is not limited to the region; on the contrary, we aim to bring our readers the most interesting perspectives and voices of opinion about current global issues and the most topical and innovative research in the area of international, cultural and political studies. To this end, <em>IS</em> publishes essays that vary in focus and methodology. In pursuit of the goal of continued excellence, we have inevitably been dependent on the contributions of our colleagues working in other disciplines, such as philosophy, communication and media, literature and anthropology.</p> </div> en-US (Jolanta Dybała) (Firma Magis) Mon, 29 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Wstęp Małgorzata Pietrasiak Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 16 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Analysis of Compliance with International Labour Law Standards on the Employment of Women in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand <p>This article presents international labour law standards on women’s employment and analyses their compliance in selected Southeast Asian countries: Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. Issues concerning equal rights in employment and maternity protection were discussed. The compliance of national regulations with the acquis of international labour law, particularly with the standards developed in the conventions of the International Labour Organization, was assessed.</p> <p>This article considers two areas of women’s employment. The first, related to gender equality, compares women’s and men’s salaries in the Southeast Asian countries in question and presents national laws prohibiting gender discrimination. The second develops issues related to maternity protection, such as the length of maternity leave, maternity allowance and breastfeeding breaks during work.</p> Justyna Gumulak Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 16 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Situation of the Singaporean LGBT Community <p>The aim of this article is to present the perception of the homosexual minority in Singapore, to summarize its history dating back to the presence of the British Empire in the Southeast Asia and to describe the current situation regarding the rights of the LGBT community. Legal changes related to the acceptance of people belonging to sexual minorities will be shown.</p> <p>The work consists of section on the past of the city-state and its legal code and describes the attempts by activists to influence the Singaporean government until November 2022, when sexual relations between men were decriminalized.</p> <p>The work demonstrates that the homosexual minority still faces problems in the legal aspect, however, thanks to the activists and the increase in social awareness, it is gradually increasing the level of acceptance of homosexuality in Singapore.</p> Jakub Burski, Karolina Czapla Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 16 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Women’s Participation in Protests Against the Military Junta in Myanmar in 2021 <p>The article aims to present the events related to the coup d’état in Myanmar in 2021 and the role of women participating in the protests against this coup. The Burmese state has been struggling with many problems since its independence from the colonial rule. One of them is the continued activity of the military junta in the country’s politics. The junta ruled the country continuously from 1962 to 2011, when a democratic party took power and a civilian leader was appointed. However, the time of democracy did not last long, because on February 1, 2021, the junta staged a coup d’état and took power again. This met with discontent among the citizens, who began organizing pro-democracy protests and resisting the regime. One of the leading groups of protesters were women. They accounted for more than half of the protesters and were often the leaders of protest marches. Their high activity in protests results not only from the desire to overthrow the junta, but also from the need to fight for equality rights in a patriarchal country.</p> Klaudia Lipińska Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 16 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Between Multiculturalism and National Unity – Social Problems in Malaysia at the Turn of the 20th and 21st Centuries <p>Malaysia is a culturally and ethnically diverse country in Southeast Asia. The aim of the work is to examine the causes and impact of the lack of cohesion and integrity in Malaysian society, as well as to check whether the local government counteracts divisions among the discussed nation. Basic information about Malaysia and an analysis of indicators relevant to the assessment of the social development of the country in question are also presented. The paper also describes selected socio-economic problems occurring in this country. Opportunities for economic and social development of Malaysia in the coming years were also presented. The text is mainly based on research: <em>Budowa państwa w warunkach wieloetniczności. Przypadek Malezji </em>[State Bilding in Multi-Ethnic Conditions. The Case of Malaysia] by Ewa Trojnar, <em>Problem nierówności dochodowych i ubóstwo w wieloetnicznym społeczeństwie Malezji </em>[The Problem of Income Inequality and Poverty in the Multi-Ethnic Society of Malaysia] by Paweł Glinik and <em>Sexuality Education in Malaysia: Perceived Issues and Barriers by Professionals </em>by Zahra Fazli Khalaf, Wah Yun Low, Effat Merghati-Khoei, Behzad Ghorbani. Conclusions were presented that Malaysia, due to its intensive economic evolution, is perceived as a strong ally in the international arena. It was also noted that the country in question could be a role model for partners and poor countries in this region of Asia. Unfortunately, differences in the legal situation of individual ethnic and racial groups, economic disproportion or lack of quality education (even sex education) lead to social stagnation. The solution may be the implementation of selected Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations, which will consolidate the further development of Malaysia and improve the general well-being of citizens. Implementation of these measures may be the way for Malaysia to become a leader in Southeast Asia, but it requires many social changes that should be implemented as soon as possible.</p> Edyta Maślak, Justyna Popławska Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Selected Social Issues of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic <p>As an object of Western public and media interest, Laos still appears to be an overlooked and unnoticed country. In a sense, it remains in the shadow of its larger neighbours Vietnam and Thailand, who capture the world’s attention in the context of the Indochina region, and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic itself remains rather on the sidelines of world politics. This state of affairs also relates to Western observers’ recognition of the social problems facing the country.</p> <p>I focus this article on providing an insight into the specific characteristics of Laos and defining the social problems the country has had to face over the past three decades. It answers questions about the characteristics of Laos, how it fares in the HDI ranking and what social challenges it faces. The thesis put forward by the authors is that the LRLD, as a moderately developed and ethnically diverse country, is confronted with the resulting social problems.</p> <p>The authors used the monographic method to conduct their research, which they based on an analysis of collected scientific publications, statistical data and internet sources. The research succeeded in confirming the hypothesis. The social problems plaguing the Lao People’s Democratic Republic have their origins primarily in the poor material situation of the majority of the population, the lack of infrastructure and the ethnic diversity that the authorities in Vientiane are unable to cope with. However, looking at the general trend of development in Laos, the scale and incidence of the issues described in the paper should gradually decrease.</p> Oliwia Ługowska, Adam Szulc, Sebastian Tarała Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Social Issues of Modern Cambodia in the 21st Century. The Problem of Violating Children’s Rights <p>The article contains the most important information about the population of Cambodia, its history from ancient times to the present day, the political situation including freedom of expression, the economic situation and the issue of violations of children’s rights. The main objective of this article is to provide the reader with basic information about Cambodia and to analyse the main problems of this Asian country in the second decade of the 21st century, with a special focus on the violation of children’s rights. The aim of the analysis is to answer the question: how does the political-economic situation and the history of the country affect the situation of children in Cambodia.</p> <p>The main part of the article deals with social problems such as poverty, lack of freedom of expression, persecution of political opponents by the authorities, prostitution and human trafficking, including violations of the rights of the youngest and the stigmatisation of orphanage residents.</p> Przemysław Chorąży Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Situation of Khmer Minority in Vietnam. Policy of the Vietnamese Authorities and Durability of the Khmer Tradition <p>This article aims to analyze the current socio-economic situation of the Khmer minority in Vietnam and to present the evolution of the Vietnamese government’s policy towards this ethnic group since the period of division to present days. In order to realize this goal, the following research questions were asked: 1) What is the status of the Khmer community in Vietnam regarding social and economic level?; 2) Has the Khmer minority developed a sense of a strong, separate identity?; 3) What is the policy of the Vietnamese authorities towards the Khmercommunity? The analysis aims to verify the hypothesis that declarations of the Vietnamese government regarding the implementation of a policy respecting cultural diversity, improving living conditions and material situation of the Khmer people are not fulfilled. There are still many neglected spheres, and the Khmer people suffer discrimination, maintaining a strong sense of national identity by cultivating Khmer traditions and customs.</p> Michał Zaręba Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200