International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/international <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>International Studies.</em> <em>Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal</em>, is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal devoted to political and cultural studies in the international context. It is one of the first journals of this kind, not only in Poland. but in Central and Eastern Europe. Its scope, however, is not limited to the region; on the contrary, we aim to bring our readers the most interesting perspectives and voices of opinion about current global issues and the most topical and innovative research in the area of international, cultural and political studies. To this end, <em>IS</em> publishes essays that vary in focus and methodology. In pursuit of the goal of continued excellence, we have inevitably been dependent on the contributions of our colleagues working in other disciplines, such as philosophy, communication and media, literature and anthropology.</p> </div> Lodz University Press en-US International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal 1641-4233 Governance, Health Financing and Health Outcomes in Nigeria: A Quantitative Assessment https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/international/article/view/17977 <p>Good health is essential to achieve sustainable development in any economy. Nigeria is no exception. No wonder it is the third goal in the sustainable development goals of the United Nations. Achieving good health also needs to be well funded with institutional quality, hence this study. This paper examined the effect of health financing and governance quality on health outcomes in Nigeria from 1980 to 2018 using secondary data sourced from World Development Indicators (WDI). A co-integration test and a vector error correction model (VECM) were employed to analyse the data. Short- and long-term results of an analysis based on life expectancy and infant mortality as a measure of health outcomes and dependent variables demonstrate that institutions empowered with good governance could produce positive health outcomes in the country.</p> Temitope Sade Akintunde Kehinde Elizabeth Adesina Olawale Olufemi Akinrinde Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 30 2 5 30 10.18778/1641-4233.30.01 No Overactivism: Robert Lewandowski’s Use of Gentle Protest to Avoid National Political Backlash https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/international/article/view/23106 <p>The last few years have seen the return of athlete activism into major international sports events held worldwide as a mindset based on social responsibility and political freedom of speech has spread into the selfperception of many current top athletes. However, while these athletes may have experienced a recent personal transformation, the national political backlash accompanying activism remains set in a long tradition condemning political interference in sports. This article provides a background on the tradition of castigating political athlete activists, a theory on why and how national political backlash occurs, and evidence on the successful use of gentle activism to avoid such scenarios. The research examines a case study of Polish international footballer Robert Lewandowski’s ‘pointing the finger’ during a World Cup qualifier in 2022 to illustrate how alternative moderate forms of activism can be adopted. This study aims to introduce the term ‘overactivism’ into the politics of sport as a concept where the athlete prioritises retaining long-term political relevancy over maximising the political impact of a single event.</p> Timothy Bridgman Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 30 2 31 48 10.18778/1641-4233.30.02 Critical Review: The Impact of Political Prisons on Political Participation (The Case of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood) https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/international/article/view/16433 <p>Many revolutionary figures throughout history proved their corrupted intention whenever they reached authority (e.g., the Iranian revolution, Burma’s Aung Suu Kyi). Some political leaders in Egypt claim they own it all depending on whom they represented in the latest major social uprising, and they define what is moral or who shall be the target for future political manoeuvres of the ruling military regime. With no one taking the lead for democratising the system, and the ex-minister of defence, incumbent President Abdelfattah Al-Sisi allegedly caught up in an internal fight with a corrupt government, the country’s better future seems to be a long and arduous struggle away. This paper addresses the overlapping and misleading media and political utterances of Egyptian opposition, who either takes a popular stand or loses followers through democratisation itself.</p> Fatma Khattab Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 30 2 49 68 10.18778/1641-4233.30.03 Fear as a Political Tool: A Critical Analysis of Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene’s Fearmongering Narratives https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/international/article/view/23107 <p>This paper examines the fearmongering narratives employed by Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene from Georgia in her political strategy. By analyzing sources, such as campaign materials, legislative proposals, and press releases through a content analysis method, the paper identifies three primary fear-based narratives this politician uses: threats to the country, threats to freedom, and threats to children. Moreover, the impact of fearmongering in Rep. Greene’s electoral strategy and its success in Georgia’s 14th congressional district, known for its conservative leanings, are also explored. By understanding the effectiveness of fearmongering, this research sheds light on the dynamics of contemporary political discourse in the United States and its potential consequences.</p> Gabriela Kwiatek Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 30 2 69 86 10.18778/1641-4233.30.04 Escalation Ladder and the Game of Chances in the Ukraine war of 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/international/article/view/17301 <p>The paper refers to the most recent developments during the 2022–2023 Ukraine war, analysed from the perspective of selected insights derived from deterrence studies, most notably the escalation ladder. The reason for the publication is to point out dangerous escalatory steps in the context of Putin’s Russia-Ukrainian war, including the abolishment of strategic arms control and tactical nuclear weapons deployment in the EU neighbourhood. V. Putin’s regime’s steps towards seizure or control of Ukraine’s largest nuclear power plant were discussed internationally as a severe humanitarian hazard. The pre-1989 deterrence debate could add a vital research perspective missing in the analytic frames of the New Cold War. Notably, the developments of the 2023 conduct of the Ukraine war with the support of the West countering the impact of a nuclear crisis scenario (tactical arsenal employment) could be analysed in the context of earlier concepts of limited war (1960s), as well as further elaborations on conditions of mutual vulnerability.</p> Grzegorz Nycz Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 30 2 87 101 10.18778/1641-4233.30.05