https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/issue/feed Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica 2020-07-07T06:04:26+00:00 Witold Sadziński foliagermanica@uni.lodz.pl Open Journal Systems https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5709 The fluctuating tense relief in German an analysis based on the pre- and post-temporal structures 2020-07-07T06:04:26+00:00 Witold Sadziński witold.sadzinski@uni.lodz.pl <p><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">The article follows on from Sadziński (2016) and is his “provocative” antithetical sequel. Ac</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">cording to an internet research, sentences with even occasionally have no chronological order.The analysis carried out has shown that the sentence structures without time series mentioned often do </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">ot understand themselves as temporal sentences</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">They are the result of de facto contamination with colloquially marked causal clauses.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5710 Formal development of the verb tun (“do, make”) in the German language a corpus investigation from the old to the modern-new-high-German stage 2020-02-25T07:10:20+00:00 Marta Woźnicka marado@amu.edu.pl <p><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">The article aims to introduce the formal development of the verb </span><em><span style="color: #221e1f; font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">tun </span></em><span style="color: #221e1f; font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">(“do, make”) in the German language, based on the corpuses of old (http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/indexe.htm), middle (https:// </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">www</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">linguistics</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">ruhr-uni-bochum</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">de/rem/) and modern-new-high-German language (https://korpora</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">zim</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">uni-duisburg-essen</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">de/Fnhd/)</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">However, the morphological analysis is primarily based on Józef </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Darski’s (1987, 2004, 2010) innovative model of linguistic analysis which, due to its synchronic cha</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">racter, has been adopted in diachronic research</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">The verb forms of </span><em><span style="color: #221e1f; font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">tun</span></em><span style="color: #221e1f; font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">, prone to modifications owing </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">to multiple processes depending on both the stage of development and the language as a paradigm, reveal its capability of adaptation to the two basic classes of verbs, i</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">e</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">strong verbs and/or weak verbs and their subclasses</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;">Additionally, it is possible to observe the processes of homogenization of the verb forms within a given paradigm and among the forms of distinct paradigms, mainly to stabilise them</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5711 The negation in the Halcnovian lect 2020-02-25T07:14:37+00:00 Marek Dolatowski dola_r@poczta.onet.pl <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The Halcnovian lect has been spoken in daily communication in Hałcnów, a village in the former Bielsko-Biała’s language island, until 1945. Today it is almost extinct. The lect is one of </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Silesian East German dialects, but it developed independently for about 500 years</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Because of the former language situation in the village, also the triglossia, there are elements and constructions that may be loaned from Polish or German. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">In this paper, first, the story of the village is presented, a short description of the Halcnovian </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">grammar follows</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">The main part of the article contains a description of all possibilities to negate in </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">the lect, there are also listed many examples. Possible foreign influences are investigated also. The analysis shows that the Halcnovian negation was lightly, but evidently influenced by other languages </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">and that is a proof for a long and intensive language contact in the village</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5712 The German language in the town council of Cracow in 15th century in the mirror of the language analysis of the chosen charters 2020-02-24T12:21:20+00:00 Piotr A. Owsiński piotr.owsinski@uj.edu.pl <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The article hereunder presents the language analysis of the chosen German charters from 15</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">th </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">century, which come from the </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Antiquum Registrum Privilegiorum Et Statutorum Civitatis Cracoviensis </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">published by Stanisław Ambroży Estreicher in 1936 in Cracow. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">The texts of the unknown scriveners were written in the Silesian dialect, what can be proved </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">on the basis of the way of the notation in the law</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The author introduces the results of his analysis </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">showing the Silesian characteristic features with the appropriate examples. </span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5713 English mead, Polish miód and German Met from a historical and comparative perspective 2020-02-25T07:22:12+00:00 Mikołaj Rychło mrychlo@wp.pl <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The paper presents a diachronic analysis of Polish </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">miód </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">‘honey’, English </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">mead </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">and Germa</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">n </span><em><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Met </span></em><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">‘mead’ conducted according to a new approach to contrastive studies</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">.Taking into account potential cognates in other languages, the work aims to investigate the evolution of the common ancestor word </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">*med</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">h</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">-u- </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">in two lines of development: the Slavic leading to modern Polish, and the Germanic leading to modern English and High German</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">In order to understand these branching paths, </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">the pertinent sound changes have been identified, which transformed the common proto-form. These developments are illustrated with further examples and, in the summary, ordered chronologically. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The paper also discusses an old compound </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">*medvědь </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">(Polish </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">niedźwiedź</span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">), which can be considered a taboo designation for a bear, and contains also the root </span><strong><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">*</span></em></strong><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">medъ </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">‘honey’. </span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5714 Colours of love in Polish and German (linguistics-cultural aspects) 2020-02-25T07:21:12+00:00 Izabela Bawej iza_bawej@poczta.onet.pl <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The article describes six basic colour terms and their connotations concerning love on the basis </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">of love between a woman and a man by prism of Poles and Germans</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">The analysis covers selected </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">expressions with a colour element connoted a feeling of liking someone combined with sexual </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">attraction to answer following questions: What colour does love have in Polish and German? What </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">are physiological sources of the symbolism of love’s colours in Polish and German culture? Is the perception of love similar or different in both languages?</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5715 Forms of religiosity in selected works by Gertrud von le Fort 2020-02-24T12:23:06+00:00 Ewa Anna Piasta eapiasta@gmail.com <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Works by Gertrud von le Fort belong with literary religious discourse and enter a debate between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The writer sets her plots in the past, most frequently </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">in the Middle Ages, which enables her to offer a critical assessment of contemporary political, et</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">hical and religious issues</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The article presents various connections between literature and religion, </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">in terms of both motifs and style. References to religion are found in the thematic, axiological and linguistic layers of her texts. The analysed works comprise the novellas </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Der Dom </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">(</span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">The Cathedral</span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">) and </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Am Tor des Himmels </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">(</span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">At the Heavenly Gate</span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">) as well as the novel </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Magdeburgische Hoch</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">zeit </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">(</span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">The Magdeburg Wedding</span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">). These works also reflect the phenomenon of the so-called cultural Christianity. Le Fort’s characters are not indifferent to the religious system, even if they do not fully </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">identify with it.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5716 About the politicization of the Antigone myth by Rolf Hochhuth 2020-02-25T07:23:22+00:00 Anna Wilk anna.wilk@uni.lodz.pl <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The Antigone myth is one of the most famous myths in the history of literature</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">History of sisterly love is as old as the human civilization, although it still inspires literary scholars to look for new interpretations. Rolf Hochhuth converts mythical theme into Second World War story. </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Die Berliner Antigone </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">looks at the National Socialism and asks about </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">conditio humana</span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">. Likewise Hochhuth’s&nbsp; </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Antigone rejects human laws and buries her dead brother – nameless officer sentenced to death for his “shameless” remark: It was Hitler, not Russians, who destroyed the 6</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">th </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Army at the Stalingrad. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Interestingly Anne, alias Antigone, is not motivated by politics or religion but nevertheless she’s still dragged into political machinations and extermination system. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Heiner Müller wrote in his biography: ‘myths are clotted collective experiences, or esperanto – an international language, that is understood not only in Europe’. Basing on Hochhuth’s story </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">one can analyze transformations of a myth and functions attributed to it only to notice that models human behavior are basically the same</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">In his novel German writer is only referencing ancient myth showing readers, through modernization, how timeless the theme is.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5717 The identity of the third generation in the novel Himmelskörper written by Tanja Dückers 2020-02-25T07:24:59+00:00 Natalia Chodorowska n.chod@doktorant.umk.pl <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The object of the article is the novel </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Himmelskörper </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">written by Tanja Dückers, the representative of the third post-war generation</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The discourse in the family communication and memory space, </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">the relation to family members from the experience generation, as well as the trips in the home towns of the forefathers in the former eastern territories of Germany turn out as important fields of the search for the post-war generation’s identity. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The question is asked how memories of the Second World War and the post-war period are constructed in the family </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">context</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">, how the representatives of&nbsp; </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">the third generation deal with the </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">family’s </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">past</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">In addition, the role of the return to the home towns of the grandparents and parents for the descendants and whether these journeys lead to the constitution of the feeling of self is analysed.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5718 The woman, who didn’t exist. The female identity in the novel of Ingeborg Bachmann Der Fall Franza 2020-02-25T07:27:55+00:00 Patrycja Bogdańska patdro@o2.pl <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">When discussing the literary output of Ingeborg Bachmann, the role of the female identity, of the fear and of the feeling of inferiority cannot be ignored</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">It was an inseparable element of her creation. Bachmann became an icon of the feminist movement in the 80s, particularly because of the series of books </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Todesarten</span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">, that she was working on from 1962/1963 up to her death</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Only a few novels appeared in her lifetime: </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Malina </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">(1971), a tom of short stories </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Simultan </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">(1972) and a prose </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Ein Ort für Zufälle </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">(1964)</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">One of the novels of this series, </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Der Fall Franza </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">shows the woman as a victim and the man as a sadist</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">It is a critical voice to the ruling social order</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">There is the a question, what was the role of the woman in the patriarchal world? </span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5719 Social life documents referring to tourism as a means to create local memory German language 2020-02-25T07:30:14+00:00 Izabela Olszewska i.olszewska@ug.edu.pl <p align="JUSTIFY">Local memory is a type of common memory and originates from memory studies. It defines a group’s memory, as it is ascribed to specific members of a community, specific places and time. <span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Social life documents are carriers of popular information on specific memory places (i.e. pla</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">ces in a given regional space, as well as events, characters, artefacts) of a given region</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">From the point of view of time lapsing apart from a medium of communication they become a medium of </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">local memory. The aim of the article is to analyse texts of social life documents referring to tourism </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">as a medium creating local identity in the period of the Free City of Gdansk</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5720 Witches and necromancers in the culture of ancient Germans 2020-02-25T07:32:10+00:00 Andrzej Piotr Kowalski a.p.kowalski@wp.pl <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">In the culture of the ancient Germans, women were of high rank</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">This was especially true of </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">the prophets. Some of them, for example Veleda, Völva, Valuvurg, were named after the Indo-Eu</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">ropean root </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">*h</span><sub><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">2</span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">wel</span></sub></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">-</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">It meant active vision, giving knowledge about the future</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">This root lies in the names of poets, deities of death and the land of the dead</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Necromancers were also active among </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">the Germans</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">They were called </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">haliurunnae </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">among the Gothic tribes</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Their Proto-Germanic term </span><em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">*haljarūnō </span></em><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">is applied to knowledge of the secrets associated with graves and of the goddess Hel. The article presents the hypothesis that these female necromancers dealt with the magic of graves </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">and bodies of the dead. Their divination and magic had a “material” aspect. According to Jordanes, </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">these witches were persecuted</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The practices associated with the goddess Hel were dark and carried out in secret</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">Perhaps a vestige of the actions of these witches are tombs which have been destroyed, </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">violated and disturbed. We know them from the area of cultures which have been identified with the Goths, of which Jordanes wrote. At the time, the prophetesses, such as Veleda, were acting officially. Their divination was more ‘spiritual’. Therefore, they were accepted and were found in the company </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">of the Germanic chiefs.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5721 From the literary national wealth of the East Franconian Dialect 2020-02-24T12:25:55+00:00 Karl Corino karl.corino@t-online.de <p><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">The article is a description of the East Franconian Dialect from the point of view of the author </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">who grew up in the town of Ehingen. The text, written in the form of an essay, interspersed with interesting and funny descriptions of the reality of this language area, is rich in authentic examples of this dialect. For the full transparency and understanding of the dialects in the text, the author has </span><span style="color: rgb(34, 30, 31); font-size: xx-small;">placed a glossary at the end</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">.</span></p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5708 Zum Geleit 2020-02-24T12:26:08+00:00 Witold Sadziński witold.sadzinski@uni.lodz.pl 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5722 Charlotte Krüger: Mój dziadek fałszerz. Przeł. Bartosz Nowacki i Zuzanna Urszula Bogucka. Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa 2017, SS. 431 2020-02-24T12:26:22+00:00 Katarzyna Wójcik katarzyna.wojcik@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/germanica/article/view/5724 Ralf Rothmann: Umrzeć na wiosnę. Przeł. Aldona Zaniewska, W.A.B., Warszawa 2016, SS. 254 2020-02-24T12:26:45+00:00 Katarzyna Wójcik katarzyna.wojcik@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018