Czytanie Literatury. Łódzkie Studia Literaturoznawcze https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>Czytanie Literatury. Łódzkie Studia Literaturoznawcze</em> to rocznik Instytutu Filologii Polskiej i Logopedii Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego. Czasopismo publikuje artykuły, recenzje, wywiady, polemiki i inne formy wypowiedzi o charakterze naukowym dotyczące literatury polskiej i powszechnej oraz zagadnienia czytelnictwa.</p> <p><a href="https://digijournals.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/">Czytanie Literatury. Łódzkie Studia Literaturoznawcze na platformie Digital Commons (Elsevier)</a></p> </div> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego pl-PL Czytanie Literatury. Łódzkie Studia Literaturoznawcze 2299-7458 "Kwiaty polskie" by Julian Tuwim as a Reflection on Law, the Political System, and the State https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9546 <p><em>Kwiaty Polskie </em>by Julian Tuwim a multi-thread multifaceted masterpiece. The author of the article discusses it through the prism of legal and political content identifiable in the text without omitting references to the state and its system in Tuwim’s earlier works, and indicates the way in which the short-term student of law school perceived and experienced law. The superb boyish laws are the fragment of <em>Kwiaty Polskie </em>which the author analysed in terms of the legislative technique.</p> Maciej Kijowski Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 289 308 10.18778/2299-7458.09.15 “Ten sam odwieczny wróg niebezpieczny.” The Universal Dimension of Tuwim’s Satire https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9547 <p>In the article, the author analyses the satirical works by Julian Tuwim published in his poetic collections. By indicating the strong bonds between poetry and satire in&nbsp;the poet’s works, the author explains the phenomenon of the unwavering topicality of Tuwim’s satire having generalising ambitions. She has considered the poet’s masterful combination of the poetic perspective with the attitude of a&nbsp;satirist as a&nbsp;factor which enables the generalisation of the critical diagnosis. However, she argues that the universal dimension of his wide-scope satirical works is mainly determined by the poet’s worldview-based horizons, which constituted the point of reference for his critical evaluation of the existing social reality, which exposed the destructive influence of a&nbsp;community on an individual. She also stated that he was able to peer deep into the mentality of the mindless members of the “tyrannous community” by virtue of his distance towards himself, in turn being the result of his sense of the absurdity of his own existence.</p> Elżbieta Sidoruk Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 309 322 10.18778/2299-7458.09.16 Odnośnie artykułu Katarzyny Kuczyńskiej-Koschany "«Panienka, Godzina Polski», 1916: Irena Tuwim’s Literary Debut” https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/8454 <p>Poszukiwanie debiutu Ireny Tuwim nie należy do rzeczy łatwych. Jej pierwsze utwory, pisane w wieku młodzieńczym publikowane były na łamach prasy łódzkiej, często pod pseudonimami, nadanymi przez jej brata, Juliana, który w tajemnicy przed siostrą zanosił jej wiersze do zaprzyjaźnionych redakcji. W świetle dzisiejszej wiedzy za najwcześniej opublikowane wiersze poetki należy uznać utwory „Przy kominku” oraz „Szczęście” zamieszczone w pierwszej połowie 1914 r. na łamach jednodniówki literackiej „Życie Łódzkie” pod red. A. Nullusa, współtworzonej przez J. Tuwima. Wspomniane wiersze zostały podpisane pseudonimem „Ira Blanka”. Ponadto wierze zostały opatrzone przypisem, z którego wynikało, że ich autorka miała 15 lat a wiersze zostały opublikowane bez jej wiedzy.</p> Aneta Stawiszynska Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 375 377 10.18778/2299-7458.09.21 The Category of Ugliness in "Historie maniaków" by Roman Jaworski https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9544 <p>The article undertakes to interpret the collection of short stories titled <em>Historie maniaków </em>by Roman Jaworski using the category of ugliness. So far, this work has been analysed through a different aesthetic category, namely the grotesque, while the author himself drew attention in the discussed collection of short stories to ugliness and recommended that it should be chosen as the principle perspective. The analysis focuses on the impact of the ugliness category on the shaping of elements of the world presented in the work: the creation of the characters and their corporeality, settings, as well as the very composition of the collection and the construction of the language used by the author. The paper finishes with an attempt to interpret <em>Historie maniaków </em>using contemporary humanistic theories, which consider the category of ugliness as a positive value.</p> Magdalena Sikorska Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 237 252 10.18778/2299-7458.09.12 Form and Power On the Disciplinary Coding of National Identity in “Pamiętnik Stefana Czarnieckiego” by Witold Gombrowicz https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9563 <p>The aim of this article is to analyse Witold Gombrowicz’s short story entitled “Pamiętnik Stefana Czarnieckiego” in the context of the convergence between the writer’s worldview and the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Nietzschean motifs inspired both authors to formulate a similar constructivist anthropology and a similar criticism of the concept of discipline. The themes of form and creating a human being by a human being – central to Gombrowicz’s writing – correspond to Foucault’s notion of the production of the subject. In such a perspective, “Pamiętnik Stefana Czarnieckiego” can be read as a record of the experience of an individual subjected to social practices of disciplinary embarrassment, aimed at producing a subject defined by nationality and heteronormativity, as well as the experience of rebellion against an imposed identity. Such a reading reveals the political stakes of the literary output by the author of <em>Ferdydurke</em>: expressed in the deconstruction of authoritarian forms of empowerment and in the pursuit to replace them with forms of subjectification based on irony, fluidity and distance.</p> Tomasz Jativa Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 9 253 267 10.18778/2299-7458.09.13 “A Production Center”: A Model of Creative Work in Tadeusz Konwicki’s Early Prose https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9545 <p>The aim of this article is to outline the issues related to the specificity of the image of the writer and his role in society created in Tadeusz Konwicki’s early works. This stage in the writer’s life opens with the first short story that Konwicki published, namely “Kapral Koziołek i ja” from 1947, after which the initial model of his writing is subject to gradual erosion and ends between 1954 and 1955 with the novel titled <em>Z oblężonego miasta</em>. Investigating the motif of the creative work house on the basis of <em>Z oblężonego miasta </em>is a pretext for reflection on the category of the writer’s work. The article traces the motifs of the professional category of the writer, through analysing the constructions on which Konwicki’s narratives are based. At the same time, due to the analysis of social discourse in which the author participated, the article outlines the social functions he performed at a given time.</p> Martyna Miernecka Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 269 285 10.18778/2299-7458.09.14 “I think that poets and, more broadly, all artists have some certain cognitive impatience in them” https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9550 <p>The interview covers the subject of Stanisław Barańczak and his works. Pondering on the way the poet pictures the existence of God in his poems is an important part of the text. Another crucial subject is the way Barańczak deals with his illness and portrays it in his poetic works. In the interview Jerzy Kandziora – an exquisite reasercher of the poetry written by Barańczak and Jerzy Ficowski − mentions his private relationship with both Barańczak and his wife.</p> Karolina Król Jerzy Kandziora Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 357 366 10.18778/2299-7458.09.19 “The greatness of a writer consists in articulating the eternal problems and dilemmas of humanity” https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9551 <p>The interview focuses on Thomas Mann, his oeuvre and the reception of his works. The dispute around Mann’s <em>The Magic Mountain</em>, started by Stanisław Barańczak, is an important context of the text. In the interview an essay <em>Reflections of a Nonpolitical Man </em>(yet untranslated into Polish as a whole) is mentioned.</p> Karolina Król Hubert Orłowski Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 367 372 10.18778/2299-7458.09.20 Editorial https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9524 Krystyna Pietrych Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 7 9 10.18778/2299-7458.09.01 Venice in Polish Literature of the Latter Half of the 16th Century and in the 17th Century as a Model Political System, a Leading Centre in the Fight Against the Ottoman Empire, and the Centre of the Pilgrimage Culture https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9526 <p>The aim of the study is to present at least three reasons why Old Polish writers of the latter half of the 16th century and 17th century wrote about Venice. The first one was the admiration in the nobility-ruled republican political system which emerged in the Republic of Venice, and which was considered as an attractive model by Old Polish thinkers and writers. They, e.g. Palczowski, Górnicki, and Wolan, expressed their convictions in their treatises. The second reason was that of the struggles of Christian states with the Ottoman Empire. Venice constituted the first potential ally and often a leader of European armies intended to participate in the often-planned anti-Muslim crusades. The study references the accounts of the visions of Venice as a leader of crusades as inscribed in the exhortation-related literature. The third reason was the perception of Venice as a safe port for pilgrims travelling to the Holy Land and, more broadly, to the territory of the Ottoman state via the sea. Its image emerged from the accounts of Old Polish pilgrims, travellers, and escaped slaves.</p> Michał Kuran Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 13 50 10.18778/2299-7458.09.02 A City Full of Life or a City Buried Alive? Vittorio Alfieri’s Venice and Venice in the Travel Journals by Polish Artists at the Turn of the 19th Century https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9528 <p>The article raises the topic of the evolving image of Venice from the perspectives of three travel accounts: by Vittorio Alfieri, Fryderyk August Moszyński, and Stanisław Dunin-Borkowski. They were all bound by the figure of the Italian playwright Alfieri. In the article, I&nbsp;propose a&nbsp;new look into the accounts from the travels of Polish intellectual elite: an enlightened journey described in the recollections by Moszyński, and a&nbsp;19th-century journey depicted in the journals by Borkowski, following Alfieri as the guide. Considering his tragedies in support of national liberation, he perfectly matched the ideas in the minds of Polish artists at the turn of the 19th century. Even though the author may be forgotten today, the reception of his works, depending on the historical period, political situation, and literary streams, evolved interchangeably placing him in the spotlight and ignoring him. In the first half of the 19th century, he was a&nbsp;significant figure, a&nbsp;fact which triggers interesting observations, particularly in the context of the journeys of artists to Venice.</p> Olga Szadkowska-Mańkowska Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 51 63 10.18778/2299-7458.09.03 Venice According to Odyniec (and Mickiewicz?) in Romantic Contexts https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9529 <p>This text is a reconstruction of the image of Venice offered in <em>Listy z podróży </em>by Antoni Edward Odyniec. Against the background of Romantic traditions (Byron, Chateaubriand, Shelley, and Radcliffe), I present how the author shaped the portrait of Venice suspended between the Romantic vision of the city/monster (Leviathan) and the ballad-based vision of the city/Siren. I indicate not only the fact that the image of Venice was rooted in the sentimental/Romantic stereotype, but I also define to what extent it was formed by the imagined world of Polish nobility, i.e. szlachta. Most of all, however, I am interested in the traces present in <em>Listy z podróży </em>which enable one to uncover Mickiewicz’s influence on how Odyniec shaped the image of Venice.</p> Anna Kurska Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 65 100 10.18778/2299-7458.09.04 On Several Polish Poems From 1829–1870 with Venice in the Background https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9530 <p>The subject of the article is a review of images of Venice recorded in Polish poetry between the years 1829–1870. The paper deliberately stops in the 1870s in the selection of the literary material to be analysed, focusing on the Romantic and post-Romantic tradition. Due to the different artistic value of the works, the author adopted the formula of a historical and literary “catalogue” ordered chronologically and partly problematicised according to the functions which Venetian scenery or culture perform in them. Attention is drawn to the fact that Venetian motifs present in the poetry of Polish artists tend to be related to particular phenomena and topics, such as Byronism, Gothicism, political and national camouflage, love and existential masks, conflict between people and power. The authors referred to in the paper include, among others, Adam Mickiewicz, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Zygmunt Krasiński, Edward Dembowski, Edmund Chojecki, Karol Baliński, Mieczysław Gwalbert Pawlikowski, Teofil Lenartowicz, Feliks Wicherski, Teofil Nowosielski, Aleksander Michaux and Wiktor Gomulicki.</p> Maria Berkan-Jabłońska Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 101 137 10.18778/2299-7458.09.05 Contemporary Icarus: Gustav von Aschenbach’s Journey towards the Sun https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9531 <p>The point of departure for the reflections contained in this article is the motif of the sun in Tomasz Mann’s <em>Death in Venice</em>. Analysing the presence of the sun in the work turns out to be fruitful for distinguishing and connecting several symbolic planes, on which the issues of <em>Death in Venice </em>and the drama of the main character are depicted: the relationship between contemporary times and antiquity, the cultural North-South axis, the destructive power of beauty as well as the individual fate of the artist marked by decadence. The figure of the sun seems to provide material for the interpretation of the figure of Gustav von Aschenbach as an incarnation of contemporary Icarus and allows the reader to see the path which the protagonist of <em>Death in Venice </em>follows in a new light.</p> Anna Sieradzan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 139 154 10.18778/2299-7458.09.06 Iwaszkiewicz’s Venice https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9533 <p>The article offers an overview of Iwaszkiewicz’s Venice works, starting with his early poems from his first visit in the city on a&nbsp;lagoon, and all the way to a&nbsp;work in his final poetry collection. This overview helps one realise that the writer’s autobiography is the key to all of them. Both poems and prose works followed the writer’s rhythm of existence. The presented images not so much extract the features of the city but rather refer to the author’s age, mood, and mental disposition. Another major factor that shaped the image of Venice in Iwaszkiewicz’s works were the conventional topoi consolidated in culture which build the artistic means of symbolising actual spaces. Iwaszkiewicz’s text, which developed for nearly sixty years is a&nbsp;praise of art understood, per modernist principles, in an absolutist manner.</p> Krystyna Pietrych Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 155 177 10.18778/2299-7458.09.07 “Literally, there were only a few steps between the cold and warmth, and between darkness and light.” The Image of the City in "Smutna Wenecja" by Wacław Kubacki https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9535 <p>The article discusses the image of the city presented in the novel <em>Smutna Wenecja</em> by Wacław Kubacki, an outstanding literary historian, and how the writer’s interests and experiences influenced the topic and the character of the work (he utilised his journals). The city depicted by Kubacki seems to possess a dichotomous nature. The Venetian garden of the arts and the mecca of academics was contrasted with the Venice of poor and foul recesses. The author contrasted the Venice of tourists’ “unbridled excess” with the reality of the life of Venice’s proletariat. The article indicates the linguistic and compositional means which the writer used to reflect that duality, beauty, and ugliness. The article also indicates the dominant features of the novel, i.e. intellectualism and sensoriness.</p> Magdalena Kuran Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 179 199 10.18778/2299-7458.09.08 Venice in Films. "Wenecja" by Jan Jakub Kolski (2010) https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9536 <p>The topic of the article is the image of Venice in <em>Wenecja</em>, a Polish feature film direc­ted by Jan Jakub Kolski from 2010. The imaginary image of this city was inspired by “Sezon w Wenecji” (from the volume titled <em>Jedźmy, wracajmy...</em>, Krakow 1993 or <em>Jedźmy, wracajmy i inne opowiadania</em>, Warsaw 2000), a literary text by Włodzimierz Odojewski (1930–2016). The article undertakes to analyse the image of Venice in the film by the author of <em>Historia kina w Popielawach </em>as a testimony of understanding its role in a particular historical space and time, of both the plot of the film and the projected reception.</p> Iwona Grodź Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 201 214 10.18778/2299-7458.09.09 Venice in Poetry and Prose: Adam Wiedemann’s Visit to the City https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9542 <p>The main aim of the article is to identify key interpretation issues in two texts by Adam Wiedemann. Both texts feature contemporary literary pictures of visits to Venice – the Polish author wrote a short story (<em>Sens życia. Opowiadanie śródziemnomorskie</em>, 1998) and a poem (<em>Tramwaj na Lido</em>, 2015) about his journeys to Italy. Those textual visions of the urban space of Venice show that Wiedemann is fully aware of many similar attempts made earlier yet still strives to stress his distinctness, creating a record of meetings of the contemporary visitor with the unique phenomenon of the unusual urban phenomenon.</p> Agnieszka Czyżak Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 215 226 10.18778/2299-7458.09.10 Venice from Another Perspective https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9543 <p>This essay with a&nbsp;clearly personal touch is a&nbsp;narrative anchored in cultural texts which deals with experiencing Venice in a&nbsp;multi-faceted way. Talking about his many years of wandering around the city (in the company of, for instance, Joseph Brodsky) and describing places and architectural details important to him, the author argues that especially the mediation of painting, which also documented the history of Venice, allows for a&nbsp;better understanding of the phenomenon of the city. This fusion of the two modalities of experience is also reflected in the structure of the text, which closes the reflection on the contemporary condition of the city and various threats which Venice has to face.</p> Francesco M. Cataluccio Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 227 234 10.18778/2299-7458.09.11 All the Faces of Grochowiak https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9548 <p>The hereby reviewed book by Jacek Łukasiewicz entitled <em>Poeta Grochowiak </em>has been an impressive and monumental undertaking, yet it fulfils only some of the pro­mises made by its author. According to the reviewer, the fact of its release offers grounds for a discussion of the status of theory and the validity of abandoning it in favour of a reading devoid of methodological regime which elevates the importance of pleasure. The main problem which emerges after reading Łukasiewicz’s opus magnum is the issue of selecting the recipient of the monograph (a regular person or a specialist), which in turn conditions the mode of study of the poet’s output. Łukasiewicz’s monograph amplifies the conviction that Grochowiak’s poetic works should be read using new methodologies, which could indicate the poet’s innova­tion in terms of increasing the value of objects and animals as the most important components of his universe. According to the reviewer, what requires justification the most is the need to comment on nearly all poems from the poet’s released collec­tions, which is supposed to be facilitated by the researcher’s identification of seve­ral categories around which his narration centred. The book was divided into two parts. The first part is predominantly chronological, while the second part follows a contextual organisation, which considering the book’s size causes problems in the form of repeated discussions of several poems. The reviewer noted the fact that some were subjected to careful reading several times while other, especially those not released, did not receive a sufficient amount of attention. Additionally, Łukasie­wicz did not attempt to define the gravity of the topic of the most recent world war in Grochowiak’s output or to reconstruct the poet’s polemic with Julian Przyboś during the mature stage of the former’s creative life. An in-depth analysis is also demanded for poems discussing the suffering of animals and inter-species commu­nity, which Łukasiewicz deemed noteworthy yet his comments to those do not help readers find indications of eco-critical awareness in Grochowiak’s works. The new monograph devoted to the output of the author of <em>Kanon </em>sheds new light on many problems and biographical contexts as the critic knew the poet, yet some issues re­quire further study. <em>Poeta Grochowiak </em>as the crowning of Łukasiewicz’s efforts into the study of the poet’s output is impressive, yet there is no doubt that a panoramic view does not guarantee noticing every detail, and it is in details that Grochowiak’s poetic sensitivity is lodged.</p> Andrzej Juchniewicz Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 325 346 10.18778/2299-7458.09.17 The Rules of How Reality Works Through the Prism of Post-Postmodern Prose https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/czytanieliteratury/article/view/9549 <p>The reviewer analyses the monograph <em>Problematic-Thematic Units and Philosophical­-Esthetical Parameters of the British Post-Postmodern Novel </em>(Kyiv, 2020) written by Dmy­tro Drozdovskyi, a Ukrainian scholar from Taras Shevchenko Institute of Literature of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, member of The European Society for the Study of English (Bulgarian branch). In the monograph, the author has outli­ned the theory of the post-postmodern novel based on the analysis of the key novels of contemporary British fiction (David Mitchell, Ian McEwan, Sarah waters, Mark Haddon, etc.). The review states that the Ukrainian scholar has developed the theory proposed by Fredric Jameson regarding the post-postmodern features of <em>Cloud Atlas </em>and also discusses the concept of meta-modernity as one of the sections in the post­-postmodern literary paradigm in the UK. Drozdovskyi argues that meta-modernism cannot be the only term that explains all the peculiarities of contemporary British fiction, which also cannot be outlined as meta-modern but as post-postmodern. The scholar provides a new theory of the novel based on the exploitation of real and unreal historical facts and imagined alternative histories and multifaceted realities. Further­more, the reviewer pays attention to the contribution this monograph has for world literary studies spotlighting the theory of literary meta-genre patterns, as Drozdo­vskyi provides a theory according to which literary periods can be divided into those in which the carnival is the dominant meta-genre pattern (like postmodernism) and those that exploit the mystery as the meta-genre pattern (post-postmodernism). The reviewer analyses the key thematic units explained by Drozdovskyi as the key ones that determine the semiosphere of the contemporary British novel (post-metaphysical and post-positivist thinking of the characters, medicalisation of the humanitarian di­scourse, and the representation of the temporal unity of different realities). The scho­lar also states that the post-postmodern British novel exploits the findings of German Romanticism and Kant’s philosophy.</p> Mykoła Zymomria Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 9 347 354 10.18778/2299-7458.09.18