Bulletin of the Section of Logic https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/bulletin <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The&nbsp;<em>Bulletin of the Section of Logic</em>&nbsp;(<em>BSL</em>) is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal published with the support of the Lodz University Press. The&nbsp;<em>BSL</em>&nbsp;was founded in 1972 by Ryszard Wójcicki, Head of the Section of Logic of the Polish Academy of Sciences, then based in Wrocław, as a newsletter-journal designed for the exchange of scientific results among members of the Section with their national and international partners and colleagues. From1975 to 2018 the journal was managed and edited by Grzegorz Malinowski. In 1992 the Department of Logic at the University of Łódź took over the publication from the Polish Academy of Sciences changing its policy into regular peer-reviewed journal. The aim of the&nbsp;<em>Bulletin</em>&nbsp;is to act as a forum for the prompt wide dissemination of original, significant results in logic through rapid publication. The&nbsp;<em>BSL</em>&nbsp;welcomes especially contributions dealing directly with logical calculi, their methodology, application and algebraic interpretations.</p> </div> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego en-US Bulletin of the Section of Logic 0138-0680 Towards a Logic of Value and Disagreement via Imprecise Measures https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/bulletin/article/view/8250 <p>After putting forward a formal account of value disagreement via imprecise measures, I develop a logic of value attribution and of (dis)agreement based on (exact) truthmaker semantics.</p> Federico L. G. Faroldi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 2 131 149 10.18778/0138-0680.2021.07 The Good, the Bad and the Right: Formal Reductions among Deontic Concepts https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/bulletin/article/view/8509 <p>The present article provides a taxonomic analysis of bimodal logics of normative ideality and normative awfulness, two notions whose meaning is here explained in terms of the moral values pursued by a given community. Furthermore, the article addresses the traditional problem of a reduction among deontic concepts: we explore the possibility of defining other relevant normative notions, such as obligation, explicit permission and Hohfeldian relations, in terms of ideality and awfulness. Some proposals in this respect, which have been formulated in the literature over the years, are here improved and discussed with reference to the various logics that we will introduce.</p> Daniela Glavaničová Matteo Pascucci Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 2 151 176 10.18778/0138-0680.2021.05 Tableau Systems for Epistemic Positional Logics https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/bulletin/article/view/6240 <p>The goal of the article is twofold. The first one is to provide logics based on positional semantics which will be suitable for the analysis of epistemic modalities such as ‘agent ... knows/beliefs that ...’. The second one is to define tableau systems<br />for such logics. Firstly, we present the minimal positional logic MR. Then, we change the notion of formulas and semantics in order to consider iterations of the operator of realization and “free” classical formulas. After that, we move on to weaker logics in order to avoid the well known problem of logical omniscience. At the same time, we keep the positional counterparts of modal axioms (T), (4) and (5). For all of the considered logics we present sound and complete tableau systems.</p> Mateusz Klonowski Krzysztof Aleksander Krawczyk Bożena Pięta Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 2 177 204 10.18778/0138-0680.2021.06 Extended MR with Nesting of Predicate Expressions as a Basic Logic for Social Phenomena https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/bulletin/article/view/9456 <p>In this article, we present the positional logic that is suitable for the formalization of reasoning about social phenomena. It is the effect of extending the Minimal Realisation (<strong>MR</strong>) logic with new expressions. These expressions allow, inter alia, to consider different points of view of social entities (humanistic coefficient). In the article, we perform a metalogical analysis of this logic. Finally, we present some simple examples of its application.</p> Aleksander Parol Krzysztof Pietrowicz Joanna Szalacha-Jarmużek Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 2 205 227 10.18778/0138-0680.2021.09 Common Knowledge, Common Attitudes and Social Reasoning https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/bulletin/article/view/7205 <p>For as long as there have been theories about common knowledge, they have been exposed to a certain amount of skepticism. Recent more sophisticated arguments question whether agents can acquire common attitudes and whether they are needed in social reasoning. I argue that this skepticism arises from assumptions about practical reasoning that, considered in themselves, are at worst implausible and at best controversial. A proper approach to the acquisition of attitudes and their deployment in decision making leaves room for common attitudes. Postulating them is no worse off than similar idealizations that are usefully made in logic and economics.</p> <p><input id="idg-io-safe-browsing-enabled" type="hidden" /></p> Richmond H. Thomason Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 2 229 247 10.18778/0138-0680.2021.04 Reasoning about Social Phenomena https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/bulletin/article/view/10434 Tomasz Jarmużek Fengkui Ju Piotr Kulicki Beishui Liao Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 50 2 125 129 10.18778/0138-0680.2021.14