Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Biologica et Oecologica <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Biologica et Oecologica</em> publishes original and innovative research papers on all aspects of biology and ecology especially in the field of zoology, hydrobiology, botany, microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, physiology, behaviour, and evolutionary biology. <em>Folia Biologica et Oecologica</em> publishes standard papers but also longer papers such as review articles that sum up the current state of the research on a particular and important topic.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href=""><em>Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Biologica et Oecologica </em>on <strong>Digital Commons (Elsevier)</strong></a></p> en-US (Anna Janaszewska) (Firma Magis) Wed, 29 Sep 2021 14:17:55 +0200 OJS 60 The development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells: the potential of ABC transporter-targeted therapy to overcome inefficiency of treatment Joanna Korszun Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Analysis of mutation occurrence in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia using next-generation sequencing Magdalena Stawiarz, Artur Kowalik Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Determination of the cytotoxicity of nanosilver coated with carbosilane dendrons against B14 cells Marta Kędzierska, Katarzyna Miłowska Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 An analysis of the methodology for building the environmental potential of urban areas Konrad Budziński, Paweł Jarosiewicz Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 Dominika Komorowska, Agnieszka Gajewska, Aleksandra Rodacka Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Combination of immunotherapy and histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer treatment Monika Orzechowska Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Silver nanoparticles – possible applications and threats <p>Silver is known for its biocidal properties. This metal has been used for decorations and food preservation since ancient times and has also been used in medicine. Silver foil has been used to cover wounds and burns. In addition, silver solutions were created to help fight the microorganisms responsible for causing infections, which helped the wound healing process. Currently, to increase and optimize the properties of silver, it is used on a nanometric scale. Nanosilver, due to its expanded spectrum of properties, is used in many economic sectors, including in the production of disinfectants and food films, as well as in animal farms. Nanoparticles are also the basis of nanomedicine action. Creating new drug complexes with nanosilver and modifying the medical materials used in implantology or dentistry allow the lives of many people to be saved every day. In addition, nanosilver particles are commonly used as a specific disinfectant in the production of hospital materials: dressings, bandages, surgical masks, hospital clothing and shoes, and equipment. With the growing use of nanosilver, there are concerns about its harmful effects on living organisms, because not all its mechanisms of action are known. As is well known, the dose determines the toxicity of a given substance; the case is similar for nanosilver. However, is the dose providing antibacterial and antifungal properties non-toxic to animals and humans? This review presents a summary of the scientific research showing the scope of nanosilver activity and the resulting threats.</p> Marta Kędzierska, Katarzyna Miłowska Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Buffer composition affects rose bengal dialysis rate through cellulose membrane <p>Due to its fluorescent and phototoxic properties, rose bengal (RB) is used in photodynamic therapy. To improve the delivery of RB to its site of action, the application of nanocarrier systems has been proposed. The most promising approach includes the use of pH-responsive nanoparticles. To evaluate the pattern of drug release in different buffers, equilibrium dialysis is commonly used. Here, we used water and two buffers to determine the impact of solvent composition on the aggregation and dialysis rate of RB through a cellulose membrane. The results show that buffer composition does not influence the fluorescent properties of RB. However, the presence of additional ions causes a change in diffusion rate that is most probably linked to the size of RB aggregates.</p> Krzysztof Sztandera Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 A brief dive into the phenomenon of cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer <p>Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer due to a lack of proper treatment. The rare presence of molecular therapy targets forces the use of platinum-based drugs. Cisplatin, approved by the USA as an anticancer therapy in the 1970s, is still one of the most prominent therapies against lung cancer. Unfortunately, the biggest limitation of cisplatin-based therapy is the development of cisplatin resistance. Cancer cells overcome the vast DNA damage caused by the drug in a variety of ways such as detoxication and extracellular transport of the drug, enhanced repair mechanisms, omitting apoptosis and epigenetic alterations. Chemotherapy resistance is an issue that so far cannot be dealt with. Nevertheless, better understanding of the molecular pathways behind cisplatin resistance brings hope for better therapy outcomes in lung cancer patients.</p> Maciej Sobczak Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Challenges and development directions of membrane bioreactors operated on passenger ships in international shipping <p>In membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, the activated sludge method is integrated with the separation of solid particles by ultrafiltration (UF). The technology ensures a high effluent quality, a shortened hydraulic retention time and a long sludge age that promotes slowly growing microorganisms and low sludge production. These advantages and the modular construction mean that MBRs have started to treat wastewater generated on passenger ships to adjust the treatment systems to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. The aim of this paper is to present operational aspects of MBRs treating wastewater generated on ships, which are different from the aspects of MBR operation on land. This paper describes the consequences of separate treatment of gray wastewater (from showers, washing machines and kitchens) and black wastewater (from toilets), and of discontinuous flow of wastewater resulting from very high variability in the passenger numer and the use of the MBR as a ship ballast element. The possibility of introducing a water recovery technology using the existing infrastructure on passenger ships as well as the hybrid UF/reverse osmosis technology is presented. The findings demonstrated that gray effluent may be reused for marine main engine cooling jackets of high and low temperature, ship boilers or ship laundry.</p> Karol Trzciński, Magdalena Zielińska Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Application of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) in the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) <p>Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) is a technique used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on the recognition of restriction sites by restriction enzymes. RFLP-PCR is an easy-to-perform and inexpensive tool for initial analysis of SNPs potentially associated with some monogenic diseases, as well as in genotyping, genetic mapping, lineage screening, forensics and ancient DNA analysis. The RFLP-PCR method employs four steps: (1) isolation of genetic material and PCR; (2) restriction digestion of amplicons; (3) electrophoresis of digested fragments; and (4) visualisation. Despite its obsolescence and the presence of high-throughput DNA analysis techniques, it is still applied in the analysis of SNPs associated with disease entities and in the analysis of genetic variation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RFLP-PCR is a low-cost and low-throughput research method allowing for the analysis of SNPs in the absence of specialised equipment, and it is useful when there is a limited budget.</p> Piotr Tarach Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Effect of the solvent on the extraction of polyphenols from distillery stillage and on their antioxidant activity <p>The increase in the costs of storage and disposal of post-production residues has resulted in the search for new directions for their recycling, which is closely related to the necessity of protecting the natural environment and promoting a circular economy. Moreover, the apparent interest shown by the food market in raw materials with high antioxidant activity implies an increasing use of by-products. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the type and concentration of the solvent on the efficiency of extracting polyphenols from distillery stillage as well as their antioxidant activity by using several solvents: methanol:water (70:30 v/v), methanol:water (100:0 v/v), ethanol:water (70:30 v/v) or ethanol:water (100:0 v/v). The DPPH radical method was used to determine the antioxidant activity of the obtained extracts. The normalised variable (NV) and statistical measure (MS) were determined, based on which the effectiveness of the solvents was evaluated. The highest polyphenolic content and the antioxidant activity were obtained by using ethanol:water (70:30 v/v) as a solvent in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from distillery stillage.</p> Wioleta Mikucka, Magdalena Zielińska Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 New trends or return to traditional methods in the production of grain spirits? <p>This review article is based on scientific and popular science publications as well as articles from branch magazines that refer to the production of alcohol in Poland based on traditional grain raw materials. New trends in the production of broadly understood alcoholic beverages point to a return to traditional raw materials and production methods, preferably carried out in small, traditional distillery – crafted beers, local wines or spirits. Consumers desire a return to tradition, however, it is equally important to maintain the right quality and efficiency of production. The future of alcoholic beverages based on malted and unmalted cereals in Poland is associated with the search for specific varieties of cereals, their mixtures as well as fermentation and distillation processes that will allow the production of ‘craft spirits’.</p> Agnieszka Kuta, Maria Balcerek Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Traditional and new raw materials for spirit beverage production <p>The ethanol production industry is a fast growing branch of the economy in many countries, and there is a rich tradition of spirit beverage production of many unique drinks such as Polish vodka and Starka or Irish and Scotch whisk(e)y, all of which have unique organoleptic features. This variety is possible thanks to different raw materials used for production such as rye, barley or corn and potatoes, as well as technological solutions developed over the generations of manufacturing. Rye deserves a closer look due to its low growth requirements and many different uses as well as its long tradition of cultivation, especially in Poland. On the other hand, manufacturers are currently interested in using new, original raw materials for the production of so-called craft alcohols. Buckwheat is an example of a raw material that can be successfully used in the production of original spirits.</p> Szymon Ługowoj, Maria Balcerek Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The structure of Prunus avium L. crops and their importance for pollinating insects in seed orchards in Poland <p>The functioning of forests in Poland is often associated with a productive role and the production of wood-based raw materials, disregarding the need to protect forest environments. In practice, the approach to the protection of nature and animals, including insects in forest areas, has changed in recent decades. Many researchers still point to the need to protect the processes taking place in forest environments. Actions are being taken to reduce monocultures in forests and to increase the biodiversity of plants and animals living among crops. A good example described in this paper is the relationship between seed plantations and insects. These relationships may have a positive effect on the fruiting process and seed production in selected tree species. This paper presents an example of the relationship between wild bees and <em>Prunus avium </em>L. seed plantations as an example of a positive relationship in which humans as well as pollinating insects can benefit. The structure and size of <em>Prunus</em> cultivation in Poland are described and the hitherto harvest of seeds is analysed. The elements of the biology of the <em>Prunus </em>species, important for the process of pollination of flowers by insects are also indicated. The study also indicates ways to protect bees in the forest environment.</p> Mateusz Kęsy Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Towards a better understanding of the bacterial pan-genome <p>The bacterial pan-genome is a relatively new concept that refers to the number of genes observed in a given set of bacterial genome sequences, either at the intra- or inter-species level. Determining the pan-genome of a given species of bacteria using a large number of strains allows one to compare multiple genes and to determine evolutionary links between isolates. This information can help to determine population structure, diversity in terms of prevalence in a given environment and pathogenicity of microorganisms. Within this review, we explain the most important issues related to pan-genome studies. We also include a brief description of some selected bacterial pan-genomes. Finally, we propose an easy-toperform workflow to study bacterial pan-genomes that will facilitate nonexperts in a pan-genome-based investigation.</p> Dawid Gmiter, Sylwia Nawrot, Ilona Pacak, Katarzyna Zegadło, Wiesław Kaca Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Comparison of the antioxidant potential of some herbal teas produced from ecological and traditional crops <p>The growing public awareness of the dangers regarding chemicals used in traditional agriculture has led to consumers seeking valuable and contaminant-free products. Ecological agriculture has become synonymous with high health value and product safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and the total polyphenolic content of infusions of herbal tea bags and loose teas from traditional crops, as well as infusions of loose teas from ecological crops. Raw material comprised dried flowers of <em>Matricaria chamomilla </em>and <em>Tilia cordata</em>, as well as dried leaves of <em>Urtica dioica</em>, <em>Melissa officinalis </em>and <em>Mentha piperita</em>. Herbal infusions were prepared using three brewing times: 5, 10 and 20 min. The analysis of antioxidant potential was performed using in vitro methods such as DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The polyphenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity of the studied tea infusion depended on the method by which the plants were cultivated and the brewing time. The ecological agriculture conditions seem not to stimulate the synthesis of antioxidants. However, the possibility to obtain other beneficial properties of the studied plants is an indication to carry out ecological cultivation.</p> Daria Wira, Joanna Zielonka-Brzezicka, Anna Muzykiewicz-Szymańska, Adam Klimowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) using organic waste: an example with Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. <p><em>Pleurotus pulmonarius </em>(Fr.) Quel. is a mushroom species that occurs widely in nature on all continents except Antarctica. It is most common in North America. Its fruiting bodies are characterised by a mild taste and a slight anise aroma. These mushrooms are valued as a source of nutrients and substances with a healing effect. The anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of <em>P</em>. <em>pulmonarius </em>have been scientifically proven, as well as its strong antihyperglycemic activity. <em>P</em>. <em>pulmonarius </em>is easy to grow because it has a very aggressive mycelium towards cellulosecontaining materials. In Poland, it can be grown on substrates based on cereal straw and various types of organic waste, including agricultural, horticultural, textile and forestry. In intensive crops, the substrates are also enriched with protein and carbohydrates. On an industrial scale, <em>P</em>. <em>pulmonarius </em>is grown primarily in Asia and North America on locally available organic materials.</p> Luiza Dawidowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Aetiology, prophylaxis and management of preeclampsia <p>Although preeclampsia affects approximately 3%–8% of pregnancies worldwide and is a major contributor to maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, the aetiology of preeclampsia is still not fully understood. This review presents the current knowledge on the aetiology of preeclampsia, with a special emphasis on risk factors and their role, and describes recommendations for the prevention and treatment of preeclampsia.</p> Karolina Gronkowska Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial. VI PhD Students National Conference of Life Sciences “BioOpen” Rafał Szelenberger, Angela Dziedzic, Anna Włuka, Patrycja Gralewska, Anna Janaszewska Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200