https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/issue/feed Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Iuridica 2022-04-14T14:29:34+02:00 Karolina Krzeszewska karolina.krzeszewska@uni.lodz.pl Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>At the beginning<em>&nbsp;Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Iuridica</em> presented articles of academics from Faculty of Law and Administration UŁ only. Since several years the articles are being published by all polish and foreign academics, too. Currently at the initiative of&nbsp;<em>Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Iuridica </em>Editors the articles have been grouped in the thematic structure and include not only jurisprudence issues from lawyers` point of view, but also philosophers, logicians, sociologists, psychologists, economists and at the same time becoming an interdisciplinary journal.</p> </div> https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13239 The Administrative Judiciary Reforms in Young Democracy Countries (Comparative Legal Analysis) 2022-04-13T10:54:18+02:00 Agnieszka Krawczyk akrawczyk@wpia.uni.lodz.pl <p>The study is the result of a legal comparative analysis of the directions of reforms in the administrative judiciary in the countries of young democracy: Poland, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Croatia, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine, Georgia and Kazakhstan. The analysis was carried out with reference to the patterns developed in old European democracies, mainly in Austria and Germany. Papers on reforms of the administrative judiciary in each of these countries were delivered at the international scientific conference: Reforms of administrative judiciary in the countries of young democracy (10–11.06.2021, Faculty of Law and Administration, University of Lodz). They focused on three issues: 1) contemporary challenges of the rule of law and administrative judiciary, 2) directions of changes in the national systems of administrative judiciary, 3) the future of administrative judiciary. The content of the study refers to this system of issues, which reflects the stages of development of administrative judiciary in the countries of young democracy. The conclusions drawn from the analysis show the results of reforms at each of these stages – from the constitutionalization of the rule of law, through the independence of the court-administrative procedure, to the stage of the present, extremely difficult challenges, not only of a procedural nature.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13240 The German Administrative Jurisdiction in European Comparative Law 2022-04-13T12:11:45+02:00 Gernot Sydow gernot.sydow@uni-muenster.de <p>This study is devoted to analysing the structural decisions related to the administrative jurisdiction in Germany in comparison with other European countries. It focuses, in particular, on the institutional structure of the administrative jurisdiction and the functions associated with it to it. Different understanding of the scope of the administrative jurisdiction pre-determine how individual regulations of administrative procedural law are designed, for example, regulations concerning access to courts and the judicial powers of the administrative courts. Therefore, the article aims to demonstrate – from a comparative legal perspective – the processes of mutual interaction, namely how the structural decisions made about the administrative jurisdiction have been received, and to highlight the different developmental trends characteristic of individual countries.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13249 The “Reform of the Century” of the Administrative Judiciary in Austria − a “New Era”also for the Administrative Jurisdiction in European Young Democracy States? 2022-04-14T12:12:06+02:00 Peter Chvosta peter.chvosta@vwgh.gv.at <p>The aim of the study is to present the assumptions and effects of the administrative judiciary reform in Austria in 2012 (<em>Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeits-Novelle 2012</em>). This reform is referred to in Austria as the “reform of the century” because it was the result of the largest and most far-reaching change to the Austrian constitution since its entry into force in 1920. This reform was long debated, but due to the reluctance of Austrian politicians to reform in this area, it was in fact neither expected nor hoped for. The notion of “reform of the century” also reflects the amazement at the happy “window of opportunity” in Austrian politics, which allowed the implementation of this long-awaited reform. This formulation should not, however, obscure the fact that the reform&nbsp; of administrative judiciary in Austria was not a particular innovation in an international context: rather, it consisted in largely late adaptation to international standards, valid in other European countries many years earlier. Nevertheless, the reorganization of the legal protection system also includes changes which in fact constitute “new ground” in Austria. In the following parts of the study, after reviewing the historical development and the foundations and framework of the “new” administrative judiciary in organizational and procedural terms, the characteristics of the current system of legal protection in Austria are presented in more detail.</p> 2022-04-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13252 The Administrative Judiciary Reforms in Hungary 2022-04-14T13:04:07+02:00 Bea Éva Barsi-Fodor fodorbea@birosag.hu <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The study deals with the reforms of the administrative judiciary in Hungary from the 1880s to the present day. The main part of the considerations is the analysis of the first Hungarian codification of administrative court proceedings – Act No. I</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"> </span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">of 2017 on administrative court proceedings, which is the result of only partially implemented intention of the legislator aimed at creating an administrative judiciary separate from the common judiciary, equipped with its own procedure and institutions. These plans have not been fully implemented to this day – judicial control of the administration (both before and now) has remained in the hands of common courts, and the 2017 Act retained the status of an act only partially independent of the Code of Civil Procedure, as in many the procedural law, the act refers to the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure. Currently, judicial control of administration in Hungary is exercised by courts of two instances: in the first instance, they are adjudicated by either provincial courts by administrative chambers or, in cases provided for by law, by the Curia. The Curia adjudicates in second instance and on all matters of revision.</span></p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13256 The Administrative Judiciary Reforms in the Czech Republic 2022-04-14T13:54:31+02:00 Pavel Kandalec pavel.kandalec@law.muni.cz <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The present shape of the administrative judiciary in the Czech Republic is the result of events before January 1, 2003, when the present Supreme Administrative Court was established. This date is crucial, and everything that happened before it should be seen as elements of historical development of the administrative judiciary. Therefore, the study distinguishes two periods in the history of the development of the Czech administrative judiciary: 1) the activity of the Czechoslovak Supreme Administrative Court in 1918−1952&nbsp;and 2) the activity of the administrative judiciary in 1992−2002. The next part of the study presents the current state of the Czech administrative judiciary, highlighting the importance of the judicial activity of the Supreme Administrative Court and the actions of the legislator aimed at eliminating the problem of overloading this court. The result of these actions by the legislator was the reform carried out in 2021, consisting in limiting access to the court of second instance in certain cases.</span></p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13260 The Administrative Judiciary Reforms in Croatia 2022-04-14T14:16:02+02:00 Slavica Banić slavica.banich@gmail.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The purpose of this study is to show that the 2010&nbsp;Croatian administrative judiciary reform did not bring the expected results. As a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">result of the reform, the characteristic feature of judicial control of administration has changed − instead of resolving legal disputes as to the legality of an administrative act, unlimited judicial competence of administrative courts has been introduced. As a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">result of the reform, new institutions were introduced, such as: control of the legality of general acts, administrative contracts, judicial protection against actions and inactivity of the administration, etc. Moreover, the administrative judiciary was organized for the first time as two-instance. However, the Croatian administrative judiciary, despite introducing its full jurisprudence (unlimited jurisdiction), is still content with controlling the legality of administrative acts, and the way the courts interpret the provisions in the new legal status largely follows the patterns of the former socialist system – it is narrow, formalistic and purely literal, without taking into account the context or the specific circumstances of a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">given case. The main reason for this is the inadequate education and training of judges, the lack of their specialization and the reluctance of the Supreme Administrative Court itself to change the established patterns and practices valid in the old system conditions, to accept its new position and interpret the powers granted to it under the new, changed legal status.</span></p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13261 The Administrative Judiciary Reforms in Serbia 2022-04-14T14:29:34+02:00 Ratko Radošević R.Radosevic@pf.uns.ac.rs <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Judicial control of the administration in Serbia has a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">long tradition of over 150&nbsp;years. Initially, this control was exercised by the Council of State, organized according to French models. After World War II, all forms of administrative judiciary were abolished and reinstated as early as 1952, when the competence to resolve administrative disputes was entrusted to common courts, which adjudicated these cases in special chambers. The last phase of the development of administrative judiciary began anew with the creation of specialized judiciary, namely with the establishment of an administrative court in 2010. This court is no longer part of the administration, as it was before World War II, but part of the judicial system. Judicial control of administration is based on the constitutionally guaranteed right to a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">fair trial. This means that the administrative court decides within a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">reasonable time on the basis of the law and facts established in the course of a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">public hearing, and its judgment may be delivered in limited jurisdiction (resulting in a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">cassation judgment) or full jurisdiction (where the court itself decides the case). This phase of the development of judicial control of the administration is not finished, however, as the administrative judiciary in Serbia has a</span><span class="x-nobreak" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">single-stage structure, and therefore administrative court proceedings are always one-instance. This raises the need for further reforms aimed at introducing two-tier administrative judiciary and increasing its efficiency.</span></p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13254 The administrative judiciary reforms in Lithuania 2022-04-14T13:44:18+02:00 Jurgita Paužaitė-Kulvinskienė pauzaite@gmx.de <p class="abstrakt" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The study concerns the reforms of the administrative judiciary in Lithuania, starting from the interwar period, and the importance of prof. Mykolas Römeris, to modern times. The Lithuanian model of legal protection against actions of public administration is based on Art. 111 sec. 2 of the Lithuanian Constitution, which provides for the possibility of establishing specialized courts to hear administrative cases. Since 2001, this judiciary has two instances: it consists of district administrative courts as courts of first instance and the Supreme Administrative Court. It is part of the judicial system but is separate from the common and constitutional courts.</p> <p class="abstrakt" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Lithuanian administrative judiciary is now considered to be very modern, taking into account progressive European trends. Its characteristic feature are, among others extensive forms of alternative settlement of public law disputes, such as pre-trial proceedings, settlement or mediation. The Lithuanian legislator, however, continues efforts to modernize it further. The subject of the current discussion is the reform of the appeal procedure, assuming an increase in the effectiveness of this procedure by introducing a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span>filtering mechanism for complaints brought to the court of second instance.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13258 The administrative judiciary reforms in Ukraine 2022-04-14T13:58:40+02:00 Larysa Zuieva 378653@gmail.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The history of the establishment of administrative judiciary in Ukraine dates back to the 19</span><span class="Indeks-G-rny char-style-override-5" style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">th</span><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;century, but only after regaining independence did the process of its development begin. Administrative courts have only been envisaged in the Ukrainian Constitution as independent judicial organs since 2016, and the current system of these courts includes: the Supreme Court, appellate courts and district administrative courts. Proceedings before administrative courts are governed by the Code of Administrative Judiciary of Ukraine of 2005. The aim of the study is to present the challenges facing the Ukrainian administrative judiciary and to formulate postulates aimed at improving its functioning. The most important of these include ensuring the uniformity of the case law of the Supreme Court and modernizing the provisions on administrative proceedings.</span></p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13259 The establishment of the administrative judiciary in Georgia 2022-04-14T14:09:04+02:00 Bidzina Sturua bsturua@yahoo.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The study concerns the Georgian administrative judiciary, which was shaped under the influence of European patterns. However, unlike in most European countries, Georgia has not established separate administrative courts – judicial control of the administration is exercised by common courts. The structure of these courts is three-tier and includes district (city) courts, courts of appeal and cassation courts, with adjudicating panels specialized in administrative cases. They adjudicate according to the principles set out in the Code of Administrative Procedure of Georgia adopted in 1999, which emphasizes the importance of the lawful rules of administrative court proceedings, such as the principle of impartiality of proceedings and equality before the law, independence and impartiality of the judiciary.</span></p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13247 The Administrative Judiciary’s Reform in Kazakhstan 2022-04-14T11:45:23+02:00 Aiym Shajachmetova shag.13@inbox.ru <p>The study concerns the reform of administrative judiciary in Kazakhstan, consisting in the organizational separation of administrative courts and shaping them as a system of courts with a three-tier structure. This change was accompanied by the codification of administrative court proceedings, which – unlike the method of legal regulation in European legal orders – consisted in regulating administrative court proceedings together with administrative proceedings in one legal act: the Code of Administrative Procedure of June 29, 2020 (effective from July 1, 2021). The characteristic features of Kazakh administrative court proceedings are the court’s efforts to resolve the matter as quickly as possible. To this end, the principle of an active role of the court was established with its broad obligations as regards the taking of evidence and judicial review of the execution of a judgment by an administrative authority. Within the court-administrative procedure, there are visible inspirations from the German act on administrative judiciary. This applies in particular to types of complaints and methods of amicable settlement of a court dispute. Due to the fact that the rules of judicial control of the administration were only developing in Kazakhstan, the court was equipped with far-reaching coercive measures. The presented analysis leads to the conclusion that the Kazakh code corresponds to the procedural standards established in Europe and it will certainly contribute to the consolidation of the rule of law in the Kazakh legal system which has only recently developed in this direction.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13248 The Administrative Judiciary Reforms in Poland 2022-04-14T12:10:08+02:00 Marcin Kamiński marcin.kaminski@uj.edu.pl <p>The study concerns the factors influencing the shape of the Polish administrative judiciary, ranging from their conceptual patterns in the interwar period to the present day. Therefore, the article presents the history of administrative judiciary reforms as well as the constitutional and statutory foundations of the Polish administrative judiciary and their most important changes. The following parts of the study discuss issues related to the structure and internal organization of administrative courts, their jurisdiction and the concept of “administrative court case” as the subject of proceedings before an administrative court. The basic principles of administrative court proceedings as well as the types and nature of court decisions, including their appealability, validity&nbsp;and enforceability, were also discussed. The last part highlights the challenges faced by the Polish administrative judiciary and the prospects for its further reforms.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13250 The Proposals of Administrative Judiciary Reforms in Poland 2022-04-14T12:38:55+02:00 Anna Chmielarz-Grochal achmielarz@wpia.uni.lodz.pl <p>The aim of the article is to present the basic assumptions of the reforms of the Polish administrative judiciary. The planned and implemented reforms concerned both the model of administrative judiciary system, as well as the model of adjudication and rules of procedure before administrative courts. The analysis of the implemented solutions, starting from the period of the Second Polish Republic, made it possible to formulate a thesis that the administrative judiciary was subject to evolutionary (developmental) reforms. The article mainly concerns systemic issues, as the creation of a separate, independent, two-instance administrative judiciary was a priority postulate for reforms initiated after Poland regained independence, which appeared in later reform proposals. As the analysis shows, this postulate was fully implemented after the entry into force of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13251 The Protection of Legal Order by Administrative Courts 2022-04-14T12:56:42+02:00 Tomasz Grzybowski tgrzyb1@sgh.waw.pl Marta Sarnowiec-Cisłak msarnowiec@nsa.gov.pl <p>The position of the administrative judiciary, as it has functioned since 2004, situates this institution not only as a guarantor of the legality of public authority action in a given case, but also of the coherence and functionality of the administrative law system as such. The protection of the legal order by administrative courts is naturally related to the issue of the stability of the judicial practice and the responsibility of the judge for the content of the ruling, and further to the effectiveness of the judicial-administrative application of the law. Thus, this issue is situated on the edge of different methodological planes, covering such threads of analysis as: the place and role of administrative courts in the modern legal order (constitutional-legal method), the procedural model of judicial application of law and its effectiveness (administrative-legal method), or theoretical and even ethical-legal aspects of judicial application of law. In the light of the decisional model of judicial application of law, the issue of care for legal order is revealed with particular force in the layer of validation and interpretation findings, which gives significant importance to the reasons for the justification, especially if one takes into account that the execution of the decision in principle remains outside the competence of the administrative court. Against this background authors pay attention on the relatively restrained use of reformatory powers and disciplinary measures by administrative courts, as a kind of last resort legal remedy. This allows to maintain thesis that administrative courts generally protect the legal order with the force of arguments rather than with the argument of force. On the other hand, they treat measures to ensure the certainty and effectiveness of decisions of judicial application of law as measures to protect the legal order.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13253 The Need to Define the Substantive Jurisdiction of Administrative Courts Through a General Clause 2022-04-14T13:16:07+02:00 Weronika Szafrańska weronika.szafranska@us.edu.pl <p>The aim of the paper is to assess whether the amendment to Art. 3 of the Law on Proceedings Before Administrative Courts proposed in legal community, which consists in determining the material jurisdiction of administrative courts using the general clause method, is a good solution. The considerations were preceded by a short observation on the linguistic inaccuracies occuring in the discussed issues. Then, the historical process of shaping the two main methods of further specifying the material jurisdiction of courts is presented: general clause and enumeration. As the proposed changes to Polish regulations are based on solutions adopted in German administrative court proceedings, the article addresses the problems faced by judges of German administrative courts when applying the general clause. Its interpretation causes many problems and providing an insight into them may be a valuable source of information for the Polish legislator.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13255 The Right to Public Trial in Judicial Administrative Proceedings During the Covid-19 Pandemic 2022-04-14T13:46:10+02:00 Magdalena Sieniuć msieniuc@wpia.uni.lodz.pl <p class="abstrakt">The aim of this article is to show the essence of the right to public trial in judicial administrative proceedings with a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span>parallel analysis of the regulation contained in the Act of 2&nbsp;March 2020&nbsp;on special solutions connected with preventing, counteracting and combating COVID-19, other infectious diseases and crisis situations caused by them together with defining its relation to the provisions of the Law on proceedings before administrative courts, and consequently answering the question whether the mechanism for taking account of the indicated protected values inscribed in this relationship deserves approval, or whether in the era of the COVID-19&nbsp;pandemic an attempt should be made to find another solution creating a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span><span class="Italic">sui generis</span>&nbsp;“conflict rule” serving to ensure protection of these&nbsp;<span class="Italic">prima facie</span>&nbsp;mutually exclusive values.</p> <p class="abstrakt">The considerations carried out have shown that with regard to the protection of human health and life, which stand highest in the hierarchy of values protected by the legislator, it is legitimate to limit the right to an open hearing of a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span>judicial-administrative case in favour of the form of a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span>non-public sitting (closed session). However, the condition supporting the admissibility of such a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span>mechanism for taking account of the values indicated is the holding of a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span>non-public sitting in compliance with the rules of a<span class="x-nobreak">&nbsp;</span>fair trial, guaranteeing an impartial and fair hearing of the judicial-administrative case.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/Iuridica/article/view/13257 Changes in the Polish Administrative Judiciary (Selected Issues) 2022-04-14T13:54:41+02:00 Maciej Dębski maciej.debski@yahoo.com <p>The study presents an overview of the history of administrative judiciary in Poland and the current directions of its changes. In particular, the evolution of the scope of cognition of administrative courts, the progressing computerization process and the discussion on the model of adjudication were indicated. At the same time, the challenges related to the presented directions of changes were noticed and potential solutions were indicated that would help to face them. In conclusion, it was assumed that the development of administrative judiciary ensures respect for the individual’s subjective rights in relations with administrative bodies.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022