Zeszyty Wiejskie http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>Zeszyty Wiejskie</em> to biuletyn informacyjno-naukowy Interdyscyplinarnego Zespołu Badania Wsi UŁ (IZBW). Powstał z inicjatywy osób w zespole skupionych, podejmujących w ramach pracy naukowej szeroko rozumianą problematykę wiejską. Mając nadzieję na dalsze trwanie, prezentować będzie tematkę związaną z różnymi dyscyplinami spośród nauk społecznych głównie z historią, socjologią, etnologią, pedagogiką i ekonomią. Na łamach pisma swoje studia i materiały publikować będą autorzy z IZBW i łódzkiego ośrodka akademickiego, ale także naukowcy, teoretycy i praktycy spoza Łodzi, oraz z zagranicy.</p> </div> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego pl-PL Zeszyty Wiejskie 1506-6541 Lokalizacja kościołów i cmentarzy we wsiach józefińskich na terenie województw małopolskiego i podkarpackiego http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7095 <p>The article presents the results of research on the location of churches and cemeteries in Josephine villages in the Lesser Poland Voivodship and Subcarpathian Voivodship. Detailed analyzes covered selected rural settlement units on a case-study basis. In the first part of the article, aspects of the genesis of the distribution of churches and cemeteries in the study area were examined while extracting the characteristic types of distribution of the analyzed objects. The further part of the study presents the location and distribution of churches and cemeteries in the contemporary landscape of the studied villages.</p> Monika Cepil Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 11 25 10.18778/1506-6541.25.01 Szkoła elementarna w Załęczu Wielkim (pow. wieluński) 1804–1859 http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7096 <p>The village of Załęcze Wielkie, located in the south-eastern part of the Wieluń district, was one of the villages of Kamionkowo dominium, which belonged to the chapter of the Gniezno archbishopric. As a result of the Second Partition of Poland, these areas came under the rule of the Hohenzollerns (1793), in the so-called South Prussia (Südpreussen). After the Kościuszko Uprising (1794), it was decided to confiscate them and create domains. The beginnings of elementary school in Załęcze Wielkie should be linked with the activities of the Prussian administration aimed at creating a network of schools in newly gained areas. The school probably started its activity in 1804 – when the school building was put into use. Throughout its existence, the facility struggled with material difficulties. The contribution of the village inhabitants was barely enough for the teacher’s salary. There was a lack of funds for proper maintenance of the school building. Hence the staffing trouble: teachers, especially in the last period of the school’s existence, changed very often. The facility existed until 1859, when it was closed by the decision of the educational authorities of the Kingdom of Poland.</p> Zdzisław Włodarczyk Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 27 38 10.18778/1506-6541.25.02 Od wiejskiej osady do przemysłowego miasta. Historia i rozwój urbanistyczny Stąporkowa od XVIII w. do lat sześćdziesiątych XX w. http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7097 <p>Urban analysis covers the period from the construction of the first blast furnace in the Konecki estates – 1738/39 until 1967 when Stąporków gained the city rights. The industrial development of the village is connected with Jan Małachowski and Jan Tarnowski. The areas around the steelworks formed the core of the “old” Stąporków developing towards the village of Czarna and the health resort of Czarniecka Góra to the west. Shortly after the Second World War, the industry was reborn in the town. Settlements for the workers of individual factories began to be built. In the 1950s, the first buildings for their employees were erected by the Iron Foundry Stąporków and the Iron Ore Mine. The constructed housing estates became the axis of the “new” Stąporków focusing its spatial development around industrial plants located east of the original settlement. Between these parts, spaces of residential, functional and cultural functions appeared successively. This however, led to the lack of a clearly defined urban center of the location.</p> Daria Rutkowska-Siuda Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 39 52 10.18778/1506-6541.25.03 Zorganizowane wyjazdy na wieś jako forma pomocy dzieciom łódzkim w latach I wojny światowej http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7098 <p>Horrors of the First World War affected the life of all citizens of Lodz, especially the young ones. Victualing-related problems led to a phenomenon of hunger and numerous strictly connected diseases. Various charity organizations tried to help children from Lodz, for example by organizing countryside excursions for them. The children took part both in a few-week summer stays, as well as in a few-month visits to the countryside. One of the main aims set by the organizers was to improve the overall well-being of children by providing them with proper nutrition. Even though the children staying in the countryside were required to work and help farmers, some positive influence of the aforementioned stays was frequently indicated.</p> Aneta Stawiszyńska Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 53 68 10.18778/1506-6541.25.04 Sytuacja gospodarcza wsi w powiecie tarnowskim w II Rzeczypospolitej http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7099 <p>The reborn Poland was a country with a definite dominance of the agricultural sector over other sectors of the national economy. The financial situation of the village had a huge impact on the development of the country’s economy. With a good situation in the agricultural sector, other areas of the economy could develop quickly. With the financial crisis in the 1930s – which the Polish village found itself in – other branches of the economy were also in a weak condition.</p> Paweł Mierzwa Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 69 84 10.18778/1506-6541.25.05 Kandydat PSL „Wyzwolenie” pierwszym prezydentem Polski, czyli wielka gra Stanisława Thugutta w grudniu 1922 roku http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7100 <p>In December 1922, the first presidential election in history took place in Poland. Voting was not universal because the National Assembly made their choice. One of the candidates for the office of president was proposed by Stanislaw Thugutt. He was the leader of the Polish People’s Party “Wyzwolenie/Liberation”. PPP “Wyzwolenie/Liberation” was one of the largest peasant parties in interwar Poland. In comparison with the largest peasant party in the Second Polish Republic – the Polish People’s Party “Piast” was a leftist party. On December 9,1922, both parties supported the same candidate in a decisive vote. It was Gabriel Narutowicz, who was then the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In addition, he was a well-known civil engineering engineer in Europe, in particular hydroelectric power plants. It should be emphasized that Narutowicz was not a member of PSL. Unexpectedly, Narutowicz won the election and became the first president in Polish history. In the decisive fifth vote, he defeated the right-wing party candidate. It was a great success for Thugutt, who proved to be a foresight politician. Unfortunately, a week after the election, Gabriel Narutowicz was murdered by a right-wing fanatic. However, this did not change the fact that the first president in Polish history was the candidate proposed by the people’s party.</p> Marek Białokur Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 85 107 10.18778/1506-6541.25.06 Etnografia w archiwum. Chłopskie podania o ziemię poniemiecką w gminie Łazisko w centralnej Polsce. Antropologiczny przyczynek do Historii Alternatywnej reformy rolnej (1944) http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7101 <p>The article – by probing / pipetting method – presents the Polish peasants’ applications for former German land in the Łazisko commune from the period of land reform (1944). It opens a problem area and shows that the ethnographic / anthropological reading of documents, which are peasant applications for land, attempts to illuminate an old problems with a new light. The article is a contribution to the Alternative History of land reform, the axis of which is to examine the peasant experience of land reform in the context of relations with German settlers who disappeared from the common local cultural landscape. The alternativity or anthropology of the approach used is based on: shifting the perspective from a macro historic to a micro historic one, focusing on documents located on the border of formality and informality (objectivity and subjectivity, facts and sphere of emotions), deriving history from national borders (for the purpose of focusing on universal suffering), the discourse of counter-history.</p> Sebastian Latocha Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 109 122 10.18778/1506-6541.25.07 Inteligencja wiejska w Polsce w latach 1945–1989 http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7102 <p>After 1945 a number of changes occurred in rural Poland in relation to the education of farmers and their families, and the role of education in the lives of rural residents. First of all, a new group of peasant intelligentsia was formed, coming from the peasant or working-class environment. It was to replace the earlier elites by working in the spirit of socialist ideas and supporting the development of the state. Due to the need to rebuild the country and increase the efficiency of agriculture, educators and agricultural advisors trained in cities were also directed to villages. Pursuant to the implemented education development programs, farmers’ children gained access to schools, and parities were created for them at universities. As a result, there was a greater chance for farmers to send their children to universities, but this required financial capabilities of the family, as well as the belief that the education acquired would mean social advancement. The purpose of the article is to analyze the structure of education and educational opportunities of rural residents during the People’s Republic of Poland.</p> Adriana Merta-Staszczak Sylwia Straszak-Chandoha Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 123 133 10.18778/1506-6541.25.08 Między ekonomią a ekologią. Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne III Rzeczypospolitej http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7103 <p>Energy security is an extremely important area of every country’s activity. The management of the energy sector affects immediate functioning of the entire economy, and further the state of the natural environment. After Poland’s integration with the European Union, our country had to comply with the Community regulations. The constantly growing interdependence between states is an extremely important tendency of modern civilization. Oil and gas resources are declining, but the demand for these raw materials is not diminishing. It is estimated that there will be enough coal for some time, but burning all its resources would be a huge burden for the environment, because in this way global greenhouse gas emissions would increase even more.</p> Joanna Bochaczek-Trąbska Iwona Sterczewska Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 135 150 10.18778/1506-6541.25.09 Przesiedleńcy ze wschodnich obszarów II Rzeczypospolitej po II wojnie światowej – w relacji podróżnika rowerowego http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7104 <p>The author presents three excerpts from the reports of cycling travel in Poland in the years 2008–2011, contained in the “Bicycle Journals”. They contain descriptions of meetings with Poles who, as a result of political change in the areas of eastern Poland after 1945, were forcibly resettled in central, or north-western and western parts of Poland within its current borders.</p> <p>The direct accounts of the participants of the events show the complicated political background of Poland, Europe and the world after the Second World War, as well as the dramatic fate of the individuals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amilkar Kosiński Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 153 170 10.18778/1506-6541.25.10 Migracje ludności wiejskiej w Polsce – przeszłość i teraźniejszość http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7105 <p>Migration is an integral part of human history. International migrations are one of the most important social phenomena in the modern world and in Poland. Their trends and reasons, shaping up in time, are the fundation for conducting research into this process. The scale of the departures also makes the problem increasingly significant for social researchers. The article presents the essence of contemporary migrations of Poles from the countryside and most of all, it shows readiness of young people to move abroad. It shows the scope of migration and the main features of contemporary Polish migration. It was developed based on the result of research, which was conducted among high school students who had been demonstrating readiness to migrate.</p> Kamil M. Kuśmider Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 171 183 10.18778/1506-6541.25.11 Kościół wędrowniczek http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7106 <p>The purpose of the article is to present the history of the “wandering church” in Mętków, which shows on a microscale the strength of colloquial religiosity and religious culture in one of the small local communities in Poland. The biography of Pope John Paul II entered the history of this church, which is why it has the status of a church-relic for the faithful people, which is another interesting interpretative context.</p> Władysław Zarębczan Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 187 202 10.18778/1506-6541.25.12 Sacrum w miejscach oddalonych. Komentarz antropologa http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7107 <p>The article opens a series of publications on the existence of <em>sacrum</em> in remote places, small, peripheral, less known sanctuaries against the backdrop of religious landscapes. The first of the sanctuary series is Mętków, whose history is presented by Władysław Zarębczan. However, I add anthropological commentary to this story, using categories: religious culture, etiological legend, sanctuary, relics.</p> Ewa Nowina-Sroczyńska Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 203 208 10.18778/1506-6541.25.13 [Rec.:] Piotr Swacha, Elity parlamentarne ruchu ludowego w okresie transformacji systemowej w Polsce (1989–2001), Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warszawa 2019, ss. 383 http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7108 Andrzej Lech Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 211 217 10.18778/1506-6541.25.14 [Rec.:] Amilkar G. Kosiński, Dzienniki rowerowe 2008–2011, cz. I i cz. II, Łódź 2018, ss. 643 http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7109 Andrzej Lech Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 219 225 10.18778/1506-6541.25.15 [Rec.:] Wesele szamotulskie, pod red. Macieja Sierpińskiego, Szamotulski Ośrodek Kultury, Szamotuły 2016, ss. 56 http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7110 Damian Kasprzyk Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 227 232 10.18778/1506-6541.25.16 Jan Kopka (1932–2018) http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7111 Barbara Chlebowska Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 235 240 10.18778/1506-6541.25.17 Jakub Gossa (1922–2004) http://czasopisma.uni.lodz.pl/zwiej/article/view/7112 Stanisław Stanik Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 25 241 249 10.18778/1506-6541.25.18